How many deaths at Auschwitz?
Dr. Robert Faurisson
December 10, 1995
according to the documentary film Nuit et Brouillard (Tr.'s Note: "Night and Fog", title used in the English-speaking world) (1955), whose historical advisers were the historian Henri Michel and the woman historian Olga Wormser-Migot(1)
according to the French War Crime Research Office and the French War Crime Information Service) (1945) (2)
according to Raphaël Feigelson (1945)(3)
according to Tibère Kremer, writer of a foreword for Miklos Nyiszli (1951) (4)
5,000,000 to 5,500,000 persons
according to Bernard Czardybon (1945), according to confessions attributed to some SS members and according to the newspaper Le Monde (1978), which was adding: "of whom 90% of Jews" (5)
according to Henryk Mandelbaum (1945) (6)
according to a Soviet document of which the Nuremberg tribunal took "judicial notice". This figure was inscribed nineteen times, with a commentary in as many different languages, on the Auschwitz-Birkenau monument. It was repeated by a sizable number of persons, including the Polish historian Franciszek Piper. It was to be declared false in 1990 and replaced, on the monument, in 1995, by the figure of 1,500,000 with the concurrence of the same F. Piper for whom this figure is a maximum while the minimum figure is of 1,100,000. According to Miriam Novitch (1967), of the 4,000,000 dead, 2,700,000 were Jewish. According to Rabbi Moshe Weiss (1991), more than 4,000,000 persons died at Auchwitz, of whom 3,000,000 were Jews. (7)
according to the Dictionnaire de la langue française (Tr.'s Note: Dictionary of the French language) published by Hachette (1991). According to Claude Lanzmann (1980), there were 3,500,000 gassed of whom 95% of Jews as well as many other deaths (8)
until December 1st, 1943, according to a confession extorted from Rudolf Höss, ex-Commander of Auschwitz (9)
3,000,000 Jews gassed
according to David Susskind (1986) and according to Heritage, the most inmportant Californian Jewish weekly (1993) (10)
according to Rudolf Vrba for the Eichmann trial (1961) (11)
2,000,000 (?) to 4,000,000 (?)
according to the historian Yehuda Bauer (1982) (12)
2,000,000 to 3,000,000 Jews killed as well as thousands of non-Jews
according to a confession attributed to an SS in charge, Pery Broad (13)
2,000,000 to 2,500,000 persons killed
according to a confession attributed to an SS physician, Dr. Friedrich Entress (1945) (14)
according to the historian Léon Poliakov (1951); according to the historian Georges Wellers (1973) and according to the woman historian Lucy Davidowicz (1975) (15)
according to the historian Yehuda Bauer (1989), of whom 1,352,980 Jews (16) (the latter figure is from Georges Wellers, 1983)
this figure, chosen by Lech Walesa, replaced, in 1995, on the Birkenau monument, that of 4,000,000 which had been withdrawn in 1990 (17)
of whom 1,352,980 Jews, according to the historian Georges Wellers (1983) (18)
1,250,000 persons or so
of whom 1,000,000 Jews killed and more than 250,000 non-Jews dead, according to the historian Raul Hilberg (19)
1,100,000 to 1,500,000 persons
according to the historians Yisrael Gutman, Michael Berenbaum and Franciszek Piper (1994) (20)
according to Jean-Claude Pressac (1989) and according to the Dictionnaire des noms propres (Tr.'s Note: Dictionary of proper nouns) published by Hachette (1992) (21)
800,000 to 900,000 persons
according to the historian Gerald Reitlinger (1953) (22)
775,000 to 800,000 persons___according to Jean-Claude Pressac (1993), of whom 630,000 Jews gassed (23)
630,000 to 710,000 persons
according to Jean-Claude Pressac (1994), of whom from 470,000 to 550,000 Jews gassed. (24)
To my knowledge, the latter appraisal (from 630,000 to 710,000 persons) is the lowest that those who believe in the physical extermination of the Jews ever provided. It is said sometimes that in 1946/1947, the Polish judicial authorities admitted the figure of 300,000 deaths. That is an error. Those authorities estimated the total of the dead at 300,000 persons registered on their arrival, but, to that figure, they added the figure of 3,000,000 to 4,000,000 unregistered persons (25).
During more than forty years, the Soviet, Polish and Federal Republic of Germany authorities showed themselves very discreet on the existence of mortuary registers (Sterbebücher) which had been kept during the war by the Auschwitz camp authorities. Under the pressure of the revisionists, at the two Zündel trials (Toronto, 1985 and 1988) in particular, those authorities at long last made revelations on those registers. They assert having retrieved registers but for the period from July 27, 1941 to December 31, 1943. Since the camp was opened May 20, 1940 and as the Germans evacuated it January 18, 1945, that period represents a little more than half the duration of the camp's existence under their authority. The registers retrieved are, it appears, in the number of 46 and would include 69,000 names (and not 74,000 as was said by certain journalists) (26).
The supporters of the official version of the "Holocaust" have experienced some discomfort facing the necessity, imposed by the revisionists, to revise downwards, in such proportions, the number of the Auschwitz deaths. How can it be explained that at the Nuremberg trial (1945-1946), such a deception had been taken straight off "judicial notice" of, thanks to Section 21 of that Tribunal's Charter? How can it be explained that, during official ceremonies, so many of this world's Greats, including Pope John Paul II, were asked to come and bow in front of such an invention of quacks? How can it be explained that in 1990, France equipped itself with an anti- revisionist law section forbidding any disputing of the "crimes against humanity" such as described and evaluated by the Nuremberg tribunal? And then, how can the figure of 5,000,000 to 6,000,000 Jews dead during the whole war be protected from any revision, if it was necessary to revise to that extent the figure of the deaths of Auschwitz?
Today, some Jews explain that the Poles, and they alone, would have invented the Auschwitz 4,000,000 lie. Actuated by antisemitism and nationalistic pride simultaneously, the Poles would have added to nearly 1,500,000 Jewish deaths about 2,500,000 Polish or other deaths! (27)
This explanation is but a contrivance. The truth is that, as early as by the war's end, not only the Communistic Jews, but also the judicial authorities of Poland had been repeating that the majority of the Auschwitz deaths was Jewish. At Cracow, in 1946-1947, about the case of Rudolf Höss, the investigating magistrate as well as the prosecution had concluded that, besides a few hundred thousand "recorded" deaths, there had been at Auschwitz either 4,000,000 or at least 2,500,000 deaths, "most of them Jewish" (28).
During the winter of 1963-1964, a specific monument was built in memory of the "millions of Jews, martyrs and fighters" exterminated in that camp; the inscription was in Polish, in Yiddish and in Hebrew(29).
Let us add finally that, for the historians of the "Holocaust", most of the Auschwitz Jews would have been KILLED by means of an insecticide: Zyklon B. For Arthur R. Butz and for other revisionists, the total number of the Auschwitz deaths must have risen to some 150,000, of whom about 100,000 Jews (30).
Most of the Jews were not KILLED but DIED, above all because of the typhus epidemics. The revisionists point out that, if the Germans had had at their disposal greater quantities of the Zyklon B insecticide precisely in order to fight those epidemics, fewer people would have died in Auschwitz not only among the Jews, the Poles, the Russians and other detainees, but also among the German physicians, civil servants and warders.
Inscription on the Auschwitz-Birkenau monument until April 3, 1990
FOUR MILLION PEOPLE SUFFERED AND DIED HERE AT THE HANDS OF THE NAZI MURDERERS BETWEEN THE YEARS 1940 AND 1945.68
Inscription on the same monument in 1995
MAY THIS PLACE WHERE THE NAZIS ASSASSINATED A MILLION AND A HALF MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN, A MAJORITY OF THEM JEWS FROM DIVERSE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, BE FOREVER FOR MANKIND A CRY OF DESPAIR AND OF WARNING.69
In French: "Ici, de 1940 à 1945, 4 millions d'hommes, de femmes et d'enfants ont été torturés et assassinés par les génocides hitlériens"; in German: "Martyrer- und Todesort von 4 Millionen Opfern ermordet von nazistichen Völkermordern, 1940-1945".
References and notes for the above numbers can be found below. It is suggested that it be printed out for easy reference.
This study constitutes but a sketch of the answers given or imposed to the question: "How many deaths at Auschwitz?" It would be easy to provide thousands of other references. The work's difficulty consists, however, in that, according to the case, the evaluations can bear on very ill-assorted categories: in one case, the number of the "killed", of the "gassed", of the "Jews" is evaluated and, in some other case, "deaths", "victims" are talked about and the "Jews" are not distinguished from the "non-Jews". Sometimes too, the evaluations are only about a limited period. As far as I am concerned, I avoided any numerical extrapolation from a figure given for a short period of the Auschwitz camp's life.
Among the historians who maintain the thesis according to which Auschwitz would have been an extermination camp, the main studies bearing on the number of the deaths in that camp are those of the the Frenchman Georges Wellers published in 1983 and 1990 and those of the Pole Franciszek Piper published in 1991, 1992 and 1994, respectively:
- Georges Wellers, "Essai de détermination du nombre des morts au camps d'Auschwitz"(Tr.'s Note: Attempt at determining the number of the deaths at the Auschwitz camp), Le Monde juif, October-December 1983, pp. 17-159; - "A propos du nombre de morts au camp d'Auschwitz" (Tr.'s Note: About the number of deaths at the Auschwitz camp), Le Monde juif, October-December 1990, pp.187-195;
- Franciszek Piper "Estimating the Number of Deportees to and Victims of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp", Yad Vashem Studies, XXI (1991), pp. 40 - 103. The latter study, corrected and enlarged, was published as a brochure in the English language printed in Poland: - "Auschwitz/How Many Perished/Jews, Poles, Gypsies…, " [completed reprint], Printed in Poland by Poligrafia ITS, 30-306, Krakow, 1992, 68 p.
One can also consult: - "The Number of Victims" in Yisrael Gutman and Michael Berenbaum, Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp", published in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Bloomington and Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1994, pp.61-80. Of these five studies, the most interesting are, for G. Wellers, that of 1983 and, for F. Piper, that of 1992, to wit, in abbreviated form hereunder: "G. Wellers, op. cit, 1983" and "F. Piper, op. cit., 1992". The two authors proceed to the reminder — painful for them — of the "errors" committed in the past as to the number of the Auschwitz deaths. Regarding this, I recommend reading G. Wellers, op. cit., 1983, pp. 138-139 and F. Piper, op. cit., 1992, pp. 5-16. Nothing shows better than those pages to what extent, on nevertheless so grave a topic as this, the number of the deaths, the worst fancies were indulged in.
- (1) Nuit et Brouillard, a 32 minute film in black and white untiringly spread in all of France's colleges and other secondary schools as well as on French television over the last forty years. Director: Alain Resnais. Historical advisors: Henri Michel (Chairman of the World War II History Committee) and Olga Wormser-Migot. Text: Jean Cayrol. 1956 Jean Vigo Award. In that film, it is said that"nothing distinguished the gas (singular) chamber from an ordinary block". The concrete ceiling of the "gas chamber" is shown in it "ploughed up by the fingernails" and it is added about this: "even the concrete was getting torn up". It is asserted there that, with the bodies, "manufacturing soap is intended". "As to the skin" of the bodies , the image shows us that the Germans were tanning it. Those stories of scratched concrete, of human soap and of skin tanned by the Germans are of the of the order of the myth. With the camera lingering on the Birkenau landscape, the commentator says: "Nine million dead are haunting this landscape". This sentence is uttered towards the end of the film.
- (2) Jacques Billiet, Director of the War Crime Information Service, Documents pour servir à l'histoire de la guerre / Camps de concentration (Tr.'s Note: Documents to be used for the war's history/Concentration camps), Office français d'édition, 1945, p. 7 (J. Billiet himself) as well as p. 196 (Series of reports of the War Crime Search Office; these same reports evaluate at 26,000,000 the number of prisoners of war as well as of the political detainees having died in all the camps of Germany and of the occupied territories, p. 197). This work was written by Eugene Aroneanu.
- (3) Ibidem, p. 196.
- (4) "6,000,000 innocents went through the chimneys of the ovens of Auschwitz because one of their close or remote forerunners was of the Israelite religion" writes Tibère Kremer in his preface to a text attributed to Dr. Miklos Nyiszli, "SS Obersturmführer Docteur Mengele" /Journal d'un médecin déporté au crématorium d'Auschwitz" (Tr.'s Note: "SS Obersturmführer Doctor Mengele"/Diary of a physician deported to the crematorium of Auschwitz"), Les Temps modernes, March 1951, p. 1655.
- (5) Bernard Czardybon at the Cracow R. Höss trial, according to F. Piper, op. cit., 1992, p. 7-8. For the confessions attributed to some SS, ibidem, p. 8. "Auschwitz, where perished more than five million men, women and children, of whom 90% of Jews" in "Manifestation du souvenir à Paris devant le mémorial du martyr juif inconnu" (Tr.'s Note: Remembrance demonstration at Paris in front of the unknown Jewish martyr's memorial) (Le Monde, April 20, 1978).
- (6) Henryk Mandelbaum at the Cracow R. Höss trial, according to F. Piper, op. cit., 1992, p. 7.
- (7) From 1945 to 1990, it is this figure of 4,000,000 that was enforced as if by law. It emanated from a Soviet document dated May 6, 1945. The document was taken "judicial notice" of by the Nuremberg Tribunal, thanks to Section 21 of that Tribunal's Charter. It appears at pages 241-261 of volume 39 of the official proceedings and documents of the Procès des grands criminels de guerre devant le tribunal militaire international, Nuremberg 14 novembre 1945-1er octobre 1946, published, for the French version, at Nuremberg, Germany, from 1947 to 1949; that is to say TMI XXXIX, pp. 241-261(… - official English edition - pages 241 and 261 of the official proceedings and documents of the Trial of the Major War Criminals before The International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, 14 November 1945 - 1 October 1946: IMTXXXIX, pp. 241 and 261). The Russian original was translated into German and it was that translation in German which was reproduced in the French edition. The summation, in French, placed at the top of the document, states among other things: "More than 4,000,000 million human beings brought from the countries occupied by Germany were killed in the [Auschwitz extermination] camp, most gassed as early as on arrival (p.241). In fact, the document itself states, in German: "No fewer than 4,000,000" (p. 261) (On p. 241 of IMT, XXXIX -official English edition - "Over 4 million people from the contries occupied by Germany were killed in Auschwitz, in most cases by gas immediately after their arrival). For the considerable number of persons who reiterated on their own that figure of 4,000,000 or of about 4,000,000, one can, to start with, refer to the names of the former detainees Shlomo Dragon, Henry Tauber, Erwin Olszowka, of the investigating magistrate Jan Sehn, of the prosecution attorney Pechalski, of the Professor-Engineer Roman Dawidowski, of the judges of the of Supreme National Tribunal of Poland, of prosecution attorneys of American military tribunals, of all kinds of authors or historians and of people in charge of the Auschwitz State Museum such as Kazimierz Smolen, Danuta Czech, et Franciskek Piper (according to F. Piper, op. cit., 1992, pp. 7-8, 12-14). "Of the 4,000,000 victims of Auschwitz, 2,700,000 were Jews and 1,300,000 were non-Jews" (Miriam Novitch, La Vérité sur Treblinka (Tr.'s Note: The Truth on Treblinka), Israel, Beth Lohamet, , 1967, p. 39. "More than 4,000,000 people perished [in Auschwitz]; almost 3,000,000 of them were Jews" (Rabbi Dr. Moshe Weiss, Former Vice President Mizrachi-Hapoel Hamizrachi, "Yom HaShoah-Holocaust Remembrance, The Jewish Press, April 5, 1991).
- (8) Willy nilly, the lawyers of the Nuremberg trial's accused often took the the same side as the prosecution. Thus was it, for instance, that Dr. Gustav Steinbauer, lawyer of Arthur Seyss-Inquart, declared July 19, 1946 before the tribunal: "Auschwitz engulfed, alone, 3,500,000 human beings, men, women and children" (TMI, XIX, p. 55) (Auschwitz alone has swallowed up 3½ million people — men, women and children. IMT, XIX, p. 48). "Auschwitz: […] a great extermination camp where perished about 3,500,000 Jews and Poles between 1940 and 1945" (Dictionnaire de la langue française, Hachette, 1991, 1430 pp.). The following year, the Hachette publishing house reduced that figure to 1,000,000 (see note 21). "It is not possible to give to the thousand the exact number of those who perished in the Birkenau gas chambers (the most serious valuations hover around 3,500,000), but by extermination must be meant essentially the Jewish people's. Ninety-five percent of Birkenau's gassed were Jews […]. Many (other detainees) still lost their life […]" (Preface of Claude Lanzmann to Filip Müller, Trois ans dans une chambre à gaz d'Auschwitz (Tr.'s Note: Three years in an Auschwitz gas chamber), Pygmalion/Gérard Watelet, 1980, p. 12).
- (9) On April 5, 1946, Rudolf Höss, the first of the three successive commanders of Auschwitz, signed in his Nuremberg jail, for the American Lieutenant-Colonel Smith W. Brochart, Jr., an affidavit in English where he stated : "I commanded Auschwitz until 1 December, 1943, and estimate that at least 2,500,000 victims were executed and exterminated there by gassing and burning, and at least another half million succumbed to starvation and disease, making a total dead of about 3,000,000" (doc. PS-3868). Ten days later, the American associate trial counsel, Colonel John Harlan Amen, read to him before the tribunal excerpts from document PS-3868, including the above excerpt, and asked him: "Is all that true, Witness?"(IMT, XI, p. 415: That is all true, Witness?) R. Höss answered: "Ja, es stimmt" (Yes, it is accurate) (TMI, XI, p. 426)(IMT,XI, p. 415: Yes, it is). R. Höss had been tortured. It was necessary to wait until 1983 to obtain, from one of his torturers' (Jews belonging with British Military Security) very mouth, the circumstances and the detail of the tortures (Rupert Butler, Legions of Death, London, Arrow Books, 1983, page of the Acknowledgements and pp. 234-238). On this point and on the manipulations and trickeries which the texts attributed to R. Höss received from the American prosecution as well as on related revelations, see R. Faurisson , "Comment les Britanniques ont obtenu les aveux de Rudolf Höss, commandant d'Auschwitz", Annales d'histoire révisionniste, spring 1987, pp. 137-152 or "How the British Obtained the Confessions of Rudolf Höss", The Journal of Historical Review, Winter 1986-1987, pp. 389-403. Until these last few years, R. Höss was held by the majority of the historians of the "Holocaust" for the No. 1 witness of the Auschwitz crimes (homicidal gassings and number of the victims). In 1993, one of those historians, the American professor Christopher Browning, requested by a Jewish British journalist to give his opinion on R. Faurisson's article, finally answered: "Höss was always a very weak and confused witness". The same professor was not hesitating to conclude: "The revisionists use him all the time for this reason, in order to try and discredit the memory of Auschwitz as a whole" (Christopher Hitchens, "Whose History is it?", Vanity Fair, December 1993, p. 117). R. Höss gave many other estimations than that of 3,000,000 deaths until December 1st, 1943.
- (10) "When you quote the figure of 1,500,000 Jews, there again you falsify figures. It was 3,000,000 Jews that were exterminated at Auschwitz- Birkenau" (David Susskind, President of the Brussels Jewish secular community center, letter published in Le Nouvel Observateur, May 30, l986, p. 29).In an editorial on the matter of the Auschwitz Carmelites, Heritage, the Calfornian largest Jewish weekly, asserts: "[…] huge quantities of poisonous Zyklon B pellets […] ended the lives of some Three Million Jews at Auschwitz" (June 7, 1993). The assertion proves the indifference of that Jewish weekly's writers to the fact that, for three years already, the world press, as a whole, had revealed that such a figure was constituting an enormous exaggeration.
- (11) "Consequently, on the basis of my calculations the final death roll in Concentration Camp Auschwitz was 2,500,000": this is what stated under oath Rudolf Vrba July 16, 1961 at Israel's embassy in London for the Eichmann trial at Jerusalem. R. Vrba had the cheek to add that this figure catches up that given by R. Höss at the Nuremberg trial, while the latter had reckoned the number of the deaths at 3,000,000 until December 1st, 1943, without providing an evaluation for the following fourteen months. R. Vrba added: "Thus my estimations of the death roll in Auschwitz, and the estimations of the death roll made by Rudolf Höss, though made independently of each other and using different methods, were nevertheless in good agreement" (Rudolf Vrba and Alan Bestic, I cannot Forgive, New York, Bantam, 1964, pp. 269-272).
- (12) It is likely that, for the historian Yehuda Bauer, the total of the dead of Auschwitz is of 2,000,000 to 4,000,000 given that he wrote, in 1982, about the sole gassed ones: "Between April 1942 and November 1944, in addition to the Soviet POWs, the gas extinguished the lives of probably up to 2,000 gypsies (in 1944), a few hundred more Soviet POWs, and between 1,500,000 and 3,500,000 Jews" (A History of the Holocaust, New York, Franklin Watts, 1982, p. 215). In 1989, that is to say seven years later, Y. Bauer evaluated the total of the dead (gassed or not gassed) at 1,600,000 of whom 1,352,980 Jews (see note 16).
- (13) The SS sergeant Pery Broad, member of the Political Section (called "Gestapo") of the camp, is supposed to have written: "2,000,000 to 3,000,000 were put to death [at Auschwitz]! Besides thousands of Poles, Russians, Czechs, Yugoslavs, etc." ("Erinnerungen von Broad", KL Auschwitz in den Augen der SS (Tr.'s Note: Recollections of Broad, the Auschwitz concentration camp in the eyes of the SS), Verlag des Staatlichen Auschwitz-Museums, 1973, p. 141).
- (14) "An SS physician, Friedrich Entress, who served as the camp doctor in 1942-1943, stated that, in his view, 2,000,000 to 2,500,000 people were killed in Auschwitz" (F. Piper, op. cit., 1992, p. 8).
- (15) "Out of prudence, we are therefore going to settle for the figure of 2,000,000 [deaths at Auschwitz]" (Léon Poliakov, Bréviaire de la haine, [in English Harvest of Hate], Calmann-Lévy, 1974 , p. 496). "[…] the exact number of the Jews assassinated in the gas chambers on alighting from the trains shall never be known. The prudent estimate is of the order of 2,000,000…" (Georges Wellers, L'Étoile jaune à l'heure de Vichy / De Drancy à Auschwitz (Tr.'s Note: The yellow star at the time of Vichy/From [the] Drancy [camp] to [the] Auschwitz [one]), Fayard, 1973, p. 290): since this estimation bears but on the number (1) of the Jews, (2) gassed, (3) on their arrival, it is probable that for the author the total number of the persons dead at any moment and for any reason is well superior to the figure of 2,000,000; ten years later, this total number was evaluated by the same author at fewer than 1,500,000 persons (see note 18). For Lucy Dawidowicz, the figure of 2,000,000 sems to be that of the Jews gassed (The War against the Jews / 1933-1945, New York, Holt, 1975, pp. 149-149).
- (16) "There were never four million victims in Auschwitz […]. The total number of people who died there […] was in the neighbourhood of 1,600,000 […]. The figure for Jews murdered by gassing is 1,323,000, with 29,980 dying in the camp" (Yehuda Bauer, "Auschwitz and the Poles / Fighting the distortions", The Jerusalem Post, September 22, 1989, p.6). The author says that he is here taking into account the estimations of G. Wellers in 1983 but he transformed the total of 1,471, 595 (G. Wellers' figure) into … 1,600,000! For his own estimation in 1982, see note 12.
- (17) Until April 3, 1990, the commemorative plates of Auschwitz- Birkenau were bearing: "Here, from 1940 to 1945, 4 million men, women and children were tortured and assassinated by the Hitlerite genocides". The new text, developed after years of tergiversations, is the following: "May this place where the Nazis assassinated 1,500,000 men, women and children, a majority of them Jews from diverse European countries, be forever for mankind a cry of despair and of warning" (Luc Rosenzweig, "Auschwitz, la Pologne et le génocide" (Tr.'s Note: Auschwitz, Poland and the genocide), Le Monde, January 27, 1995, p. 1).
- (18) G. Wellers, op. cit., 1993. To be compared with the same author's evaluation in 1973 (see note 15).
- (19) "Auschwitz […] Number [of Jews] Killed: 1,000,000 […]. The number of non-Jews who died in Auschwitz may be estimated on the basis of registrations and transfers at more than 250,000. Most were Poles" (Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, New York, Holmes and Meier, 1985, p. 895). For R. Hilberg, it seems that the Jews be always "killed" while the non-Jews are simply "dead".
- (20) "At least 1,500,000 people were murdered at Auschwitz-Birkenau" (p. 11). "At least 1,100,000 persons were killed or died in the camp. But if this number is regarded as a minimum estimate, what figure can we accept as a hypothetical ceiling? […] about 1,350,000 [Jews], with the total number of Auschwitz victims reaching about 1,500,000" (pp. 71-72). The sentence from page 11 appears on a map inserted in a chapter signed by Yisrael Gutman, "Auschwitz — An Overview". The sentences from pages 71-72 appear in a chapter signed by Franciszek Piper, "The Number of Victims" (Yisrael Gutman and Michael Berenbaum, Anatomy of the Auschwitz death Camp, op. cit., 1994). Previously, for F. Piper, the number of the Auschwitz deaths was of 4,000,000 (see note 7).
- (21) "The figure of 4,000,000 victims is now regarded as "emotional" and should really [be] more in the order of 1,000,000" (Jean-Claude Pressac, Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers, New York, Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1989, p. 264). "Auschwitz […] where perished about 1,000,000 Jews and Poles between 1940 and 1945" (Le Dictionnaire des noms propres, Hachette, 1992). For J.-C. Pressac's evaluation in 1993, see note 23 and, for his evaluation in 1994, see note 24. For the evaluation of a dictionary published by Hachette in 1991, see note 8).
- (22) "The stark and inescapable fact that 800,000 to 900,0000 human beings perished in Auschwitz, its gas chambers and its camps" (Gerald Reitlinger, The Final Solution, London, Sphere Books, 1971 , p. 500).
- (23) "Total of the deaths: 775,000 [but this figure can be attended with gaps. This is why the global figure of 800,000 victims should be retained currently" (Jean-Claude Pressac, Les Crématoires d'Auschwitz / La Machinerie du meurtre de masse (Tr.'s Note: The Crematoria of Auschwitz/The Mass Murder's Machinery), éditions du CNRS [Centre national de la recherche scientifique], 1993, p. 148. For the evaluation of J.- C. Pressac in 1989, see note 21 and, for his evaluation in 1994, see note 24.
- (24) "Total of the deaths: 631,000-711,000; […] the number of the victims is evaluated at 630,000 to 710,000" (translation in German of the work referred to just above: Die Krematorien von Auschwitz / Die Technik des Massenmordes, Munich, Piper, 1994, p. 202). For J.-C. Pressac's evaluation in 1989, see note 21 and, for his evaluation in 1993, see note 23.
- (25) See F. Piper, op. cit, 1992, pp. 12-13; the references to the Höss trial are provided by the author.
- (26) Sterbebücher von Auschwitz / Death Books from Auschwitz /Ksiegi zgonow z Auschwitz, herausgegeben vom Staatlichen Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau (Tr.'s Note: Released by the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum), 3 Bände, München, Saur Verlag, 1995.
- (27) In 1983, G. Wellers was ascribing this lie or this error of spectacular dimensions neither to the Poles, nor to the Russians, nor to the Communists. He was writing: "Depuis quelques années, ayant compris les difficultés de ce problème, et ayant retrouvé la lucidité du jugement, on évite d'avancer des chiffes, mais on sait que 4,000,000 de morts à Auschwitz est un chiffre exagéré, dû au traumatisme, au choc naturel, inévitable qui dominait le psychisme des survivants pendant les premières années après la fin de la guerre, après la fin de leur cauchemar"* (G. Wellers, op. cit., 1983, pp. 138-139). G. Wellers was therefore questioning the "survivors", while forgetting to remind [people] of his own 1973 "prudent estimation" (see note 15). In 1989, Yehuda Bauer accused the "official Polish propagandists"; he said that "some Poles disseminate the wrong figures […] in order to create a national myth"; he denounced "the Poles' concept of themselves as the crucified nation, the real sufferers of Europe" ("Auschwitz and the Poles / Fighting the Distortions", The Jerusalem Post, September 22, 1989, p. 6). "The figure propagated by the Communist regime was that 2,000,000 Jews and 2,000,000 non-Jews, mainly Poles, were killed" (Ben Helfgott, Chairman of Yad Vashem Charitable Trust, London, The Independent, 3 August 1990). "The communists tried to "de-Judaize" Auschwitz […] said Lerman who is also a member of the International Council of the State Museum of Auschwitz" ("The Polish communist's false Auschwitz story", The Philadelphia Inquirer, March 29, 1992, pp. A1, 10). Luc Rosenzweig implicates "the National-Communist Vulgate" ("Auschwitz, la Pologne et le génocide", Le Monde, January 27, 1995, p. 1).
- (28) See note 25. Besides, it shall be noticed, in our recapitulatory liste of the diverse reckonings, that the Jews themselves often indicated for the number of their co-religionists' deaths at Auschwitz figures superior to that of 1,500,000. They have therefore no right to impute their own exaggerations to non-Jews.
- (29) "In memory of the millions of Jews martyrs and fighters exterminated at the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp by the Hitlerian race murderers, 1940-1945". That inscription was appearing on a monument built, according to J.-C. Pressac, during the winter of 1963-1964 and subsequently(?) removed (J.-C. Pressac, Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers, New York, Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1989, pp. 262-263).
- (30) "I feel reasonably secure in placing the total in the range 100,000- 150,000, probably closer to the former […]. The number of Jewish deaths of natural causes at Auschwitz seems less than 100,000" (Arthur R. Butz's review of Why Did the Heavens not Darken? The "Final Solution" in History, by Arno J. Mayer, The Journal of Historical Review, Fall 1989, pp. 369-370); see also "Some Thoughts on Pressac's Opus / A Response to a Major Critique of Holocaust Revisionism", Ibidem, May/June 1993, p. 26).
* «Depuis quelques années, ayant compris les difficultés de ce problème, et ayant retrouvé la lucidité du jugement, on évite d'avancer des chiffres, mais sait que 4 000 000 de morts à Auschwitz est un chiffre exagéré, dû au traumatisme, au choc naturel, inévitable qui dominait le psychisme des survivants pedant les premières années après la fin de la guerre, après la fin de leur cauchemar.»