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CODE NAMES AND WORDS USED BY THE GERMAN HIGH COMMAND FOR OPERATIONS AND MEASURES DURING THE WAR ACHSE Measures to be taken when Italy declared a separate armistice. ADLER Capture of coast between Zara and Fiume. AFRIKA Two Italo-German convoys from Italy to Tripoli/Bengasi, end of December 1941. AIDA Occupation of Egypt and the Suez Canal. ALARICH Occupation of North Italy and Unoccupied France. ALPENVEILCHEN Invasion of Albania. ANGELHAKEN (a and b) Attacks on British ships in the North Atlantic by Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Hipper, etc. December 1940 January 1941. ANTON Occupation of Unoccupied France, with Italian cooperation. ATTILA Occupation of Unoccupied France; renamed ANTON on 17 June 1942 when land and sea operations were separated. AUGSBURG Delay attack, in Operation GELB. AURORA "Luetzow” operating against UK-Russian Convoys in 1942. BARBAROSSA Attack on Russia. BEOWULF (I & II) Occupation of East Baltic Islands, 5 November 1941. BERLIN 11 (a and b) Attacks on British ships in the North Atlantic by Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Hipper, etc. December 1940-January 1941. BIRKE Withdrawal of troops from Finland. BLAUFUCHS Attacks in Baltic Islands and near Finland. BLUECHER Part of planned attack on Caspian Sea, 1942. BRAUNSCHWEIG Operation around Stalingrad. [Page 1079] CERBERUS Transfer of “Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and Prinz Eugen” through the English Channel, 1942. CHURCHILL Danish fishing vessel “Sursum Corda” spying on English Coast and later called ERICH. CORSI/CORSO Part of operation GRUEN. DANZIG Execute attack, in Operation GELB. DELPHIN Clearance of Dalmatian Islands. DOMINO "Scharnhorst and Gneisenau” operating against UK — Russia convoys in 1942. Name changed from FRONT THEATER. DOPPELSCHLAG Scheer and Hipper operating in Arctic, 1942. EDELWEISS Operation around Baku and Caspian Sea. EICHE Rescue of Mussolini, 1943. EISBAER Attack on Cos, 1943. EISENBAHN Moving of the “Hipper” to Drontheim. ELISABETH Blockade running, Bay of Biscay, 1943. EISPALAST "Koeln” operating against UK-Russia convoys. Name changed to MEISENBALZ, 1942. ERICH See CHURCHILL. EUROPA Part of operation SEEKRIEG, planned landing on East English coast. FELIX Occupation of Canary Islands, North Africa, and Gibraltar FEUERZANGE Combing out certain Adriatic Islands. FEUERZAUBER Capture of Leningrad. FISCHREIHER Operations along the Volga, to Astrakan. FLIEGERPILZ Intended mining of Dardanelles, September 1944. FREISCHUETZ Capture of Vis and other Adriatic Islands, 1943. FRISCHES HAFF Defense of Danzig. FRONTTHEATER See DOMINO. GANGES Operation in French area. GELB Invasion of Holland, Belgium, and Luxembourg. GISELA Occupation of Spain. GRUEN Invasion of Czechoslovakia. [Page 1080] GUSTAV The plan to assassinate Gen. Giraud. HAIFISCH Attacks diversionary to BARBAROSSA by troops from Norway against Scotland, 1941. HARPUNE See HAIFISCH. HECHT See ANGELHAKEN. HEFTNADEL See ANGELHAKEN. HEKTOR Attack. on Arctic convoys. HERBSTREISE Landing on Scotch Coast; diversion to SEELOEWE. HERBSTSTURM Evacuation of Adriatic coast. HERKULES Attack on Malta, 1942. HOFFNUNG Naval operations in Baltic and North Sea, against Convoy P.Q. 19. [Page 1080] HOLZAUGE Meteorological expedition to Greenland. IKARUS Invasion of Iceland — planned 1940. ILONA Defense measures against an Allied invasion of Spain, changed from ISABELLA in June, 1942. ISABELLA See ILONA. JUNO Norwegian operations, 1940. KIRSCBLUETE Voyage of Japanese submarines to Europe. KONSTANTIN Occupation of Italian-occupied Balkan territories; changed from PRINZ EUGEN. KORALLE Unidentified operation circa February 1944. KAMELIE Projected annexation of Corsica, 1941. KORSIKA See GANGES. KURFUERST Projected operation against Gibraltar. LABYRINTH SEE GANGES. LACHSFANG Attack on Murmansk railroad near Kandalakscha. LANDWIRT Naval operational group in Mediterranean, 1943-44. MANDARINE See GANGES. MARCO POLO Operation involving collaboration with Japan. MARITA Invasion of Greece, 1941. MEISENBALZ See EISPALAST. MERKUR Invasion of Crete, 1941. META Ship cruising in Swedish water gathering various information, 1935. [Page 1081] MONSUN Operation involving use of Japanese Bases. NAUMBURG Capture of Narvik, 6 June 1940. NORD Operation in Norway. NORDLICHT Withdrawal of troops from Norway. NORDMARK Bergen/Shetland Islands operations, 1940. NORDWEST planned landing in England. OLDENBURG The economic counterpart of BARBAROSSA. OTTO Annexation of Austria, 1938; also frequently refers to the Spanish Civil War, 1936-38. PRINZ EUGEN See KONSTANTIN. REGENBOGEN Attacks against Arctic convoy, P.Q. 20, 1942 and 31 December /1943. RENNTIER Operation Norway, 1941 (blocking Kola Bay). RHEINUEBUNG Operations of the Bismarck. ROESSELSPRUNG Attacks on convoys (P.Q. 17), 1942. ROT The main effort in the West. ROTBUCHE Defense of German bases in Estonia. SAFARI Counter measures against Danish sabotage. SCHAMIL Paratrooper-attack around Maikop. SCHLESWIG Part of operation SEEKRIEG (Landing on East English coast) including attack on Norwegian convoy, February 1940. SEELOEWE Invasion of Great Britain. SILBERFUCHS Operation in Norway, 1941 (cutting off Murmansk) . SILBERSTREIFEN Naval operations in Baltic and North Sea, against convoy P.Q. 15. SK — (SEEKRIEG?) Invasion of East Coast of England. SONDERSTAB F Military mission to assist Iraq rebellion 1941. SONNENBLUME Capturing Tripoli and Malta (1941). SPORTPALAST Transfer of capital ships to Norway. TAIFUN Autumn 1941 attack against Timoshenko army. [Page 1081] TAMARA Encouraging and preparing revolt of natives in the Georgian Republic, June 1941. TANNE Withdrawal of troops from Finland. TANNE OST (Aufgabe Hochland) Occupation of Eastern Russia. THESEUS Attack by all arms in North Africa, May 1942. TIRPITZ Operation against Convoy P.Q. 12, 6 March 1942-9 March 1942 and return from Narvik to Drontheim on 13 March 1942. TORERO See GANGES. WALLENSTEIN See LANDWIRT. WEISS Invasion of Poland. WESERUEBUNG Invasion of Norway. WESTRAUM Defense operation in France, 1944. WIESEGRUND Attack on Northern Russia. WIKINGER Attack on fighting vessels, Dogger Bank, February 1940. WUNDERLAND Operations in White Sea, August 1942. ZAREWNA/ZARIN Mining operations, Murmansk Sea, 1942.