4. THE STURMABTEILUNG (SA)
The Sturmabteilung, or SA, is the organization which the world remembers as the "Brown Shirts" or Storm Troops-the gangsters of the early days of nazi terrorism. Since it was the first of the organizations created by the Nazis as instruments to effectuate their illegal objectives, the SA occupied a place of peculiar importance in the scheme of the conspirators. Unlike some of the other organizations, the functions of the SA were not fixed or static. The SA was an agency adapted to many designs and purposes, and its role in the conspiracy changed from time to time various phases toward the final objective — abrogation of the Versailles Treaty and acquisition of the territory of other peoples and nations. If the conspiracy is likened to a pattern, with its various parts fitting together like the pieces of a jig-saw puzzle, the piece representing the SA would be found to constitute the essential link in the pattern.
The SA participated in the conspiracy as a distinct and separate unit, having a legal character of its own. An ordinance passed in March, 1935, provided that the SA and certain other agencies were thereafter to be considered "components" of the Nazi Party (1725-PS). This ordinance further provided, in Article 5, that:
"* * * The affiliated organizations can possess their own legal character." (1725-PS)
Similarly, the 1943 Organization Book of the Nazi Party which characterizes the SA as an "entity," declares:
"The Fuehrer prescribes the law of conduct; he commands its use. The Chief of Staff represents the SA as a complete entity on the mandate of the Fuehrer." (3220-PS)
While the SA was composed of many individual members, they acted as a unit. They were closely bound together by many common factors, including uniform membership standards and disciplinary regulations; a common and distinctive uniform; common aims and objectives; common activities, duties, and responsibilities; and a fanatical adherence to the ideologies conceived by the Nazis. Although membership in the SA was voluntary, the SA man was expected to withdraw if
"he can no longer agree with Sa views or if he is not in a position to fulfill completely the duties imposed upon him as a member of the SA." (2354-PS)
The SA man was well schooled in the philosophies and activities which he was required to adopt in his daily life. Uniformity of action and thought in such matters was in part obtained by the publication and distribution of a weekly periodical entitled "Der SA-Mann." This publication was principally devoted to fostering various aspects of Nazi ideology. In addition, "Der SA-Mann" reported upon the activities of the SA and its constituent groups.
The SA developed from scattered bands of street ruffians into a cohesive unit organized on a military basis, with military training and military functions, and with an aggressive spirit and philosophy. The organization extended throughout the entire Reich and was organized vertically into local subdivisions. Horizontally, there were special units including military, cavalry, communications, engineer, and medical units. These various groups and branches were coordinated by the SA Headquarters and operational offices, located in Munich.
A. The Relationship Between The SA and the Nazi Party.
The affiliation between the SA and the Nazi leaders was closely maintained, for the purpose of enabling the conspirators to employ the SA for any activity necessary in effectuating the objectives of the conspiracy. The SA was conceived and created by Hitler, in 1921, at the very inception of the conspiracy. Hitler retained the direction of the SA throughout the conspiracy, delegating responsibility for its leadership to a Chief of Staff. Goering was an early leader of the SA, and maintained close connection with it throughout the conspiracy. Hess participated in many of the Early battles of the SA and was leader of an SA group in Munich. Frank, Streicher, von Schirach, and Sauckel each held the position of Obergruppenfuehrer in the SA, a position corresponding to the rank of Lieutenant General; and Bormann was a member of the Staff of the SA High Command.
The close relationship between the SA and leaders of the Nazi Party is demonstrated by the fact that the Hoheitstraeger (Bearers of Sovereignty) of the Nazi Leadership Corps were authorized to call upon the SA for assistance in carrying out particular phases of the Party program. For example, at page 71 of the Organization Book of the Nazi Party (1943 edition) the following statement is made (1893-PS):
"The Hoheitstraeger is responsible for the entire political appearance of the Movement within this zone. The SA leader of that zone is tied to the directives of the Hoheitstraeger in that respect.
"The Hoheitstraeger is the ranking representative of the Party to include all organizations within his zone. He may requisition the SA located within his zone for the respective SA leader if they are needed for the execution of a political mission. The Hoheitstraeger will then assign the mission to the SA * * *.
"Should the Hoheitstraeger need more SA for the execution of political mission than is locally available, he then applies to the next higher office of sovereignty which, in turn, requests the SA from the SA office in his sector." (1893-PS)
This close relationship is further shown by an ordinance for the execution of a Hitler decree (2383-PS):
"The leader of affiliated organizations, as well as the leaders of the party women's organization, are subordinate to the sovereign bearer (Hoheitstraeger) politically, functionally, disciplinarily, and personally."
"The formations of the NSDAP, with exception of the SS, for whom special provisions apply, are subordinated to the sovereign bearer (Hoheitstraeger) politically and in respect to commitment. Responsibility for the leadership of the units rests in the hands of the unit leader." (2383-PS)
It was in compliance with the authority of the Leadership Corps that the SA was used in the seizure of trade union properties.
In addition, the SA demonstrated its close affiliation to the Nazi Party by participating in various ways in election proceedings. A pamphlet entitled "The SA," depicting the history and general activities of the SA, written by an SA Sturmfuehrer upon orders from SA Headquarters, declares that the SA stood-
"at the foremost front of election fights." (2168-PS)
Further evidence of the close relationship between the SA and Nazi leaders is found in the distribution list of the confidential publication of the Nazi Leadership Corps, which shows that this strictly confidential magazine was distributed to Lieutenant-Generals and Major-Generals of the SA. (2660-PS)
The interest and participation of Nazi leaders in the activities of the SA is clearly shown in the issues of "Der SA-Mann" for the period from 1934 to March 1939 (3050-A-E-PS). Throughout these volumes there appear photographs of Nazi leaders participating in SA activities. The following are descriptions of a few of these photographs, together with the page numbers upon which they appear:
Photograph of Himmler, Huhnlein (Fuehrer of NSKK) and Lutze, bearing caption: "They lead the soldiers of National Socialism," 15 June, 1935, p. 1.
Photograph of Hitler at SA Ceremony, carrying SA Battle Flag. The picture bears the caption: "As in the fighting years the Fuehrer, on Party day of Freedom, dedicates the new regiments with the Blood Banner," 21 September, 1935, p. 4.
Photograph of Lutze and Hitler, 19 September, 1936, p. 4.
Photograph of Hitler and SA officers, 1 January, 1938, p. 3.
Photograph of Streicher with SA men, and reviewing SA Troops, 25 November, 1938, p. 1.
Photograph of Goering in SA uniform reviewing SA marching troops under the caption: "Honor Day of the SA," 21 September, 1935, p. 3.
Photographs of Goering, Hess, and Hitler in SA uniform at the ceremonies dedicated to SA men killed in the Munich Putsch, 16 November, 1935, p. 3.
Photograph of Goering marching in SA uniform, 19 September, 1936, p. 3.
Photograph of Goering at ceremonies held upon occasion of his being made Obergruppenfuehrer of the Feldherrnhalle Regiment of the SA, 23 January, 1937, p. 3.
Photograph of Goering leading Feldherrnhalle Regiment of SA in parade, 18 September, 1937, p. 3.
The work of the SA did not end with the seizure of the German government by the Nazis, but affiliation between the SA and Nazi leaders continued thereafter. The importance of the SA in connection with the Nazi Government and control of Germany is shown by the law of 1 December 1933 entitled, "The Law on Securing the Unity of Party and State" (1395-PS):
"* * * The Deputy of the Fuehrer and the Chief of Staff of SA become members of the Reich Government in order to insure close cooperation of the offices of the Party and SA with the public authorities." (1395-PS)
Similarly, a decree promulgated by Hitler providing for supervision of premilitary training by the SA declares:
"The offices of the Party and State are to support the SA in this training program and to value the possession of the certificate for the SA military insignia." (2383-PS)
The complete control of the SA by the Nazis at all times is shown by the so-called "Roehm Purge" of June 1934 (see 2407-PS). Roehm had been Chief of Staff of the SA for several years, and was responsible for the development of SA into a powerful organization. SA members were required to take a personal oath of fidelity to Roehm. But when his policies conflicted with those of the Nazi leaders, he was removed, murdered, and replaced by Victor Lutze. This drastic action was accomplished without revolt or dissension in the ranks of the SA, and with no change in its objectives or program. The SA remained "a reliable and strong part of the National Socialist Movement * * * full of obedience and blind discipline," whose function was to "create and form the new German citizens." (2407-PS)
The importance of the SA in the Nazi plan for the utilization of the people of Germany is shown in Hitler's pronouncement "The Course for the German Person," which appears in the issue of "Der SA-Mann" for 5 September 1936, at page 22. Hitler's statement reads as follows:
"The boy, he will enter the Young Volk, and the lad, he will enter the Hitler Youth, the Young man will go into the SA, in the SS, and in other units, and the SA and SS men will one day enter into the labor service and from there to the Army, and the soldier of the Volk will return again into the Organization of the Movement, the Party, in the SA and SS and never again will our Volk decay as it once was decayed". (3050-A-E-PS)
Thus the SA was constantly available to the conspirators as an instrument to further their aims. It was natural that Victor Lutze, the former Chief of Staff of the Sa, in a pamphlet entitled "The nature and Tasks of the SA," declared:
"The SA cannot be independent of the National Socialist Movement but can only exist as a part of it." (2471-PS)
B. Participation by the SA in the Conspiracy.
The principal functions performed by the SA in furtherance of the objectives of the conspiracy may be classified into four distinct phases, each of which corresponds with a particular phase in the progression of the conspiracy.
The first phase consists of the use of the SA and its members as the instrument for the dissemination of Nazi ideology throughout Germany. The employment of SA for this purpose continued throughout the entire period of the conspiracy. In the second phase, the period prior to the Nazi seizure of power, the SA was a militant group of fighters whose function was to combat all opponents of the Party. In the third phase, the period of several years following the Nazi seizure of power, the SA participated in various measures designed to consolidate the control of the Nazis, including the dissolution of the trade unions, the persecution of the church, and Jewish persecutions. During this period the SA continued to serve as a force of political soldiers whose purpose was to combat members of political parties considered hostile to the Nazi Party. The fourth aspect of SA activities consisted of its employment as an agency for the building up of an armed force in Germany in violation of the Treaty of Versailles, and for the preparation of the youth of Germany for the waging of an aggressive war.
(1) The Propagation of Nazi Doctrine. From the Very start the Nazi leaders emphasized the importance of the SA's mission to disseminate Nazi doctrines. The responsibility of propagating National Socialist ideology remained constant throughout. This is shown in an excerpt from Mein Kampf in which Hitler declared:
"* * * As the directing idea for the inner training of the Sturmabteilung, the intention was always dominant, aside from all physical education, to teach it to be the unshakeable convinced defender of the National Socialist idea." (2760-PS)
Hitler's pronouncement as to the function of SA in this respect became the guiding principle of SA members, for Mein Kampf was taken to express the basic philosophy of the SA. The Organization Book of the Nazi Party declares that the training of SA members should consist of-
"The training and rearing upon the basis of the teachings and aims of the Fuehrer as they are put down in 'Mein Kampf' and in the Party program, for all spheres of our life and our National Socialist ideology." (2354-PS)
The Party Organization Book also declares that the SA is the "training and rearing instrument of the Party." (2354-PS)
Similarly, in an article which appeared in "Der SA-Mann", at page 1 of the issue of January 1934, the functions of the SA were set forth as follows:
"First, to be the guaranty of the power of the National Socialist State against all attacks from without as well as from within.
"Second, to be the high institute of education of the people for the living National Socialism."
The function of the SA as propagandist of the Party was more than a responsibility which SA took unto itself. It was a responsibility recognized by the law of Germany. The law for "Securing the Unity of Party and State," promulgated by the Reich Cabinet in 1933, provided:
"The members of the National Socialistic German Labor Party and the SA (including their subordinate organizations) as the leading and driving force of the National Socialist State will bear greater responsibility toward Fuehrer, people and State." (1395-PS)
AS the principal ideology bearers of the Nazi Party SA members were "the soldiers of an idea," to use the expression employed by Nazi writers. Examples of the use of the SA as Nazi propagandist will be seen in the description of the other functions performed by the SA. For in each case the SA combined its propagandist responsibility instrument with the other functions which it performed in furtherance of the conspiracy.
(2) Strong-Arm Terrorization of Political Opponents. In the early stages of the Nazi Movement the SA combined propaganda with violence along the lines expressed by Hitler in Mein Kampf:
"The Young Movement from the first day, espoused the standpoint that its idea must be put forward spiritually but that the defense of this spiritual platform must, if necessary, be secured by strong-arm means." (2760-PS)
So that the Nazis might better spread their philosophies, the SA was employed to gain possession and control of the streets for the Nazis. Its function was to beat up and terrorize all political opponents. The importance of this function is explained in a pamphlet written by SA Sturmfuehrer Bayer, upon orders from SA Headquarters (2168-PS):
"Possession of the streets is the key to power in the State-for this reason the SA marched and fought. The public would have never received knowledge from the agitative speeches of the little Reichstag faction and its propaganda or from the desires and aims of the Party if the martial tread and battle song of the SA Companies had not beat the measure for the truth of a relentless criticism of the state of affairs in the governmental system. They wanted the young Movement to keep silent. Nothing was to be read in the press about the labor of the National Socialists, not to mention the basic aims of its platform. They simply did not want to awake any interest in it. However, the martial tread of the SA took care that even the drowsiest citizens had to see at least the existence of a fighting troop." (2168-PS)
And in Mein Kampf Hitler defined the task of the SA as follows:
"We have to teach the Marxists that the master of the streets in the future is National Socialism, exactly as it will once be the Master of the State." (2760-PS)
The importance of the work of SA in the early days of the Movement was indicated by Goebbels in a speech which appeared in Das Archiv in October 1935:
"* * * The inner-political opponents did not disappear due to mysterious unknown reasons but because the Movement possessed a strong-arm within its organization and the strongest strong-arm of the Movement is the SA * * *." (3211-PS)
Specific evidence of the activities of the SA during the early period of the Nazi Movement (1922-31) is to be found in a series of articles appearing in "Der SA-Mann" entitled, "SA Battle Experiences Which We Will Never Forget." Each of these articles is an account of a street or meeting-hall battle waged by the SA against a group of political opponents in the early days of the Nazi struggle for power. These articles demonstrate that during this period it was the function of SA to employ physical violence in order to destroy all forms of thought and expression which might be considered hostile to Nazi aims or philosophy.
The titles of these articles are sufficiently descriptive to constitute evidence of SA activities. Some of these titles, together with the page and reference of "Der SA-Mann" upon which they appear, follow:
Article entitled: "We subdue the Red Terror," 24 February, 1934: p. 4.
Article entitled: "Nightly Street Battles on the Czech Border," 8 September, 1934: p. 12.
Article entitled: "Street Battle in Chemnitz," 6 October, 1934: p. 5.
Article entitled: "Victorious SA," 20 October, 1934: p. 7.
Article entitled: "SA Against Sub-Humanity," 20 October, 1934: p. 7.
Article entitled: "For the Superiority of the Street," 10 November, 1934: p. 10.
Article entitled: "The SA Conquers Rastenburg," 26 January, 1936: p. 7.
Article entitled: "Company 88 Receives its Baptism of Fire," 23 February, 1935: p. 5.
Article entitled: "Street Battles at Pforghein," 23 February, 1935: p. 5.
Article entitled: "The SA Breaks the Red Terror," 1 June, 1935: p. 7.
Article entitled: "The Blood Sunday of Berlin," 10 August, 1935: p. 10.
Article entitled: "West Prussian SA Breaks the Red Terror in Christburg," 24 August, 1935: p. 15.
Portrait symbolizing the SA Man as the "Master of the Streets," entitled, "Attention: Free the Streets," 11 September, 1937: p. 1.
Article entitled: "9 November, 1923, in Nurnberg," 30 October, 1937.
As an example of the nature of these articles, the article appearing in the Franken Edition of "Der SA-Mann" for 30 October 1937, at page 3, is typical. It is entitled: "9 November 1923 in Nurnberg," and reads in part as follows:
"We stayed overnight in the Coliseum. Then in the morning we found out what had happened in Munich. 'Now a revolution will also be made in Nurnberg,' we said. All of a sudden the Police came from the Maxtor Guard and told us that we should go home, that the Putsch in Munich failed. We did not believe that and we did not go home. Then came the State Police with fixed bayonets and drove us out of the hall. One of us then shouted 'Let's go to the Cafe Habsburg!' By the time we arrived, however, the Police again had everything surrounded. Some shouted then: 'The Jewish place will be stormed * * * Out with the Jews!' Then the Police started to beat us up. Then we divided into small groups and roamed through town and wherever we caught a Red or a Jew we knew, a fist fight ensued.
"Then in the evening we marched, although the Police had forbidden it, to a meeting in Furth. During the promenade again the police attempted to stop us. It was all the same to us. Already in the next moment we attacked the police in our anger so that they were forced to flee. We marched on to the Geissmann Hall. There again they tried to stop us. But the Landsturm, which was also there, attacked the protection forces like persons possessed, and drove them from the streets. After the meeting we dissolved and went to the edge of town. From there we marched in close column back to Nurnberg. In the Wall Street near the Plaerrer the Police came again. We simply shoved them aside. They did not trust themselves to attack, for what would a blood bath have meant? We decided beforehand not to take anything from anyone. Also in Furth they had already noticed that we were up to no good. A large mass of people accompanied us on the march. We marched with unrolled flags and sang so that the streets resounded: Comrade reach me your hand; we want to stand together, even though they have false impressions, the spirit must not die, Swastika on the steel helmet, black-white-red armband, we are known as Storm Troop (SA) Hitler!"
Through such means the SA was chiefly responsible for destroying all political elements hostile to the Nazis, including liberalism and capitalism. This is shown by an article which appeared on 6 January, 1934, at page 1 of "Der SA-Mann," entitled "The SA Man in the New State!"
"The New Germany would not have been without the SA man and the new Germany would not exist if the SA man would now, with the feeling of having fulfilled his duty, quietly and unselfishly and modestly step aside or if the new State would send him home much like the Moors who had done his obligations.
"What has been accomplished up until now, the taking over of the power in the State and the ejection of those elements which are responsible for the pernicious developments of the post war years as bearers of Marxist liberalism, and capitalism are only the preliminaries, the spring-board for the real aims of National Socialism.
"Being conscious of the fact that the real National Socialist construction work would be building in an empty space without the usurpation of power by Adolf Hitler, the movement and the SA man as the aggressive bearer of its will primarily have directed all their efforts thereupon, to achieve the platform of continued striving and to obtain the fundamental for the realization of our desires in the State by force * * *
"* * * Out of this comes the further missions of the SA for the completion of the German revolution. First: To be the guaranty of the power of the National Socialist State against all attacks from without as well as within: Second: To be the high institute of education of the people for the living National Socialism. Third: to build a bridge over which the present day German youth can march free and unhampered as first generation into the formed Third Reich."
(3) Consolidation of Nazi Control of Germany. The Third function of the SA was to carry out various programs designed to consolidate nazi control of the German state, including particularly the dissolution of the trade unions and the Jewish persecutions. In the words of an SA officer, it was the function of the SA to be the "tool for strengthening the structure of the new State," and "to clean up" all that was "worth cleaning up." It was generally employed, says the SA man, "Where communism and elements hostile to the State still insolently dared to rebel." (2168-PS)
SA groups were employed to destroy political opposition by force and brutality where necessary. As an example, an affidavit of William F. Sollman reads as follows:
"* * * From 1919 until 1933 I was a Social Democrat and a member of the German Reichstag. Prior to March 11, 1933, I was the editor-in-chief of a chain of daily newspapers, with my office in Cologne, Germany, which led the fight against the Nazi Party.
"On March 9, 1933, members of the SS and SA came to my home in Cologne and destroyed the furniture and my personal records. At that time I was taken to the Brown House in Cologne where I was tortured, being beaten and kicked for several hours. I was then taken to the regular government prison in Cologne where I was treated by two medical doctors * * * and released the next day. On March 11, 1933, I left Germany." (3221-PS)
Prior to the organization of the Gestapo on a national scale local SA meeting places were designated as arrest points, and SA members took into custody Communists and other persons who were actually or supposedly hostile to the Nazi Party. This activity is described in an affidavit of Raymond H. Geist, former U. S. Consul in Berlin:
"* * * At the beginning of the Hitler regime, the only organization which had meeting places throughout the country was the SA (Storm Troopers). Until the Gestapo could be organized on a national scale the thousands of local SA meeting places became 'arrest points.' There were at least fifty of these in Berlin. Communists, Jews, and other known enemies of the Nazis party were taken to these points, and, if they were enemies of sufficient importance, they were immediately transferred to the Gestapo headquarters." (1759-PS)
In addition, SA members served as guards at concentration camps during this consolidation period and participated in mistreatment of the persons there imprisoned. A report to Hitler by the public prosecutor of Dresden concerning the Knollprosse of one Vogel, who was accused of mistreatment of the persons imprisoned in a concentration camp, reads as follows (787-PS):
"The prosecuting authority in Dresden has indicted Oberregierungsrat Erich Vogel in Dresden (case designation 16 STA 4 107/34) on account of bodily injury while in office. The following subject matter is the basis of the process:
"Vogel belongs to the Gestapo office of the province of Saxony since its foundation and is chief of Main section II, which formerly bore the title ZUB (Zentralstelle fuer Umsturzbekaempfung) (Central office for combatting overthrow). In the process of combatting efforts inimical to the State Vogel carried out several so called borderland actions in the year 1933 in which a large number of politically unreliable persons and persons who had become political prisoners in the border territories were taken into protective custody (Schutzhaft) and brought to the Hohnstein protective custody camp. In the camp serious mistreatment of the prisoners has been going on at least since summer of 1933. The prisoners were not only, as in protective custody camp Bredow near Stettin, beaten into a state of unconsciousness for no reason with whips and other tools but were also tortured in other ways, as for instance with a drip-apparatus especially constructed for the purpose, under which the prisoners had to stand so long that they came away with serious purulent wounds of the scalp. The guilty SA-leaders and SA-men were sentenced to punishment of six years to nine months of imprisonment by the main criminal court of the provincial court in Dresden of 15 May 1935 (16 STA. 3431.34). Vogel, whose duties frequently brought him to the camp, took part in this mistreatment, insofar as it happened in the reception room of the camp during completion of the reception formalities, and in the supply room, during issuing of the blankets. In this respect it should be pointed out that Vogel was generally known to the personnel of the camp-exactly because of his function as head of the Zub-and his conduct became at least partly a standard for the above-named conduct of the SA-leaders and men."
"In his presence, for instance, the SA-men Mutze dealt such blows to one man, without provocation, that he turned around on himself. As already stated, Vogel not only took no steps against this treatment of the prisoners, but he even made jokes about it and stated that it amused him the way things were popping here.
"In the supply room Vogel himself took a hand in the beating amid the general severe mistreatment. The SA men there employed whips and other articles and beat the prisoners in such a manner that serious injuries were produced; the prisoners partly became unconscious and had to lie in the dispensary a long time. Vogel was often present in the supply room during the mistreatment. At least in the following cases he personally laid violent hands upon prisoners."
"* * * the prisoner was laid across the counter in the usual manner, held fast by the head and arms, and then beaten for a considerable time by the SA men with whips and other articles. Along with this Vogel himself took part in the beating for a time, and after this mistreatment slapped him again, so that the prisoner appeared green and blue in the face. The prisoner is the tinsmith Hans Kuehitz, who bore the nickname Johnny. Upon his departure Vogel gave the head of the supply room, Truppenfuehrer Meier from 6 to 8 Reichsmarks with the stated reason that the SA men 'had sweated so.' The money was then distributed by Meier to those SA-comrades who had taken part in the mistreatment." (787-PS)
Similarly, the SA participated in the seizure and dissolution of the German trade unions in 1933, a measure taken by the Nazis under the direction of Robert Ley. An official Nazi Party circular containing an order promulgated by Robert Ley concerning the program for the seizure of the union properties read as follows:
"SA, as well as SS, are to be employed for the occupation of trade union properties and for the taking into protective custody all personalities who come into the question." (392-PS)
The SA also participated extensively in the Jewish persecutions conducted by the Nazis. The affidavit of Mr. Geist, former U.S. Consul in Berlin (1759-PS) sets forth numerous instances of attacks upon Jewish-American citizens. Mr. Geist also declares that on the morning after the Nazis' acquisition of power, SA groups roamed the streets of Berlin seizing and beating Jewish persons and other political opponents of the Nazi Party. There after SA men participated in many attacks of physical violence upon Jews, including Jewish-American citizens. In addition, uniformed SA men were employed as a display of threatening force in order to coerce Jewish persons to dispose of their property at greatly reduced values. (1759-PS)
SA participation in the Jewish program of 10 to 11 November, 1938, is disclosed in a confidential report of an SA Brigade Fuehrer to his Group Commander, dated 29 November, 1938 (1721-PS):
"To: SA Group Electrical Palatinate (Kurpfalz) MANNHEIM
"The following order reached me at 3 o'clock on 10 November 1938.
'On the order of the Gruppenfuehrer, all the Jewish synagogues within the 50th Brigade are to be blown up or set fire immediately.
'Neighboring houses occupied by Aryans are not to be damaged. The action is to be carried out in civilian clothes. Rioting and plundering are to be prevented. Report of execution of orders to reach Brigade Fuehrer or office by 8:30.'
"I immediately alerted the Standartenfuehrer and gave them the most exact instructions; the execution of the order began at once.
"I hereby report that the following were destroyed in the area of * * *
"Standarte 115 1. Synagogue at Darmstadt, Bleichstrasse…Destroyed by fire 2. Synagogue at Darmstadt, Fuchsstrasse…Destroyed by fire 3. Synagogue at Ober/Ramstadt…Interior and furnishings wrecked 4. Synagogue at Graefenhausen…Interior and furnishings wrecked 5. Synagogue at Griesheim…Interior and furnishings wrecked 6. Synagogue at Pfungstadt…Interior and furnishings wrecked 7. Synagogue at Eberstadt…Destroyed by fire" "Standarte 145 1. Synagogue at Bensheim… Destroyed by fire 2. Synagogue at Lorch in Hessen…Destroyed by fire 3. Synagogue at Heppenheim…Destroyed by fire 4. Prayer House Alsbach…Destroyed by fire 5. Meeting room Alsbach…Destroyed by fire 6. Synagogue at Rimbach…Furnishings completely destroyed" "Standarte 168 1. Synagogue in Seligenstadt…Destroyed by fire 2. Synagogue in Offenbach…Destroyed by fire 3. Synagogue in Klein-Krotzenburg…Destroyed by fire 4. Synagogue in Steinheim on the Main…Destroyed by fire 5. Synagogue in Muehlheim on the Main…Destroyed by fire 6. Synagogue in Sprendlingen…Destroyed by fire 7. Synagogue in Langen…Destroyed by fire 8. Synagogue in Egelsbach…Destroyed by fire" "Standarte 186 1. Synagogue in Beerfelden…Blown up 2. Synagogue in Michelstadt…Furnishings wrecked 3. Synagogue in Koenig…Furnishings wrecked 4. Synagogue in Hoechst i/Odenwald…Furnishings wrecked 5. Synagogue in Gross-Umstadt…Furnishings wrecked 6. Synagogue in Dieburg…Furnishings wrecked 7. Synagogue in Babenhausen…Furnishings wrecked 8. Synagogue in Gross-Bieberau…Destroyed by fire 9. Synagogue in Fraenk. Crumbach…Furnishings destroyed 10. Synagogue in Reichelsheim…Furnishings destroyed" "Standarte 221 1. Synagogue and Chapel in Gross Cerau…Destroyed by fire 2. Synagogue in Ruesselheim…Torn down and furnishings destroyed 3. Synagogue in Dornheim…Furnishings destroyed 4. Synagogue in Wolfskehlen…Furnishings destroyed" "The Fuehrer of Brigade 50 (STARKENBURG) "/s/[Illegible] "Brigadefuehrer" (1721-PS)
In connection with the persecutions of the Jews, the SA again performed its propaganda function. It was the function of the SA to create and foster among the people an anti-Jewish spirit. Evidence of this function is to be found in the issues of "Der SA-Mann". Article after article in this publication was devoted to propaganda designed to engender hatred toward the Jewish race. The nature of these articles is apparent from some of the titles:
Article entitled: "Finish up with the Jew", with subtitle:
"We want no women to buy from Jews, and no Jewish girl friends," 27 July, 1935, p.4.
Article entitled: "The Jewish World Danger," 2 February, 1935, p.5.
Article entitled: "Jewish Worries," (defending the practices of excluding Jews from certain resorts). 20 July, 1935, p.4.
Article entitled: "Jews aren't wanted Here," with pictures posted on outskirts of villages showing signs bearing the same message. (1 June, 1935, p.1.) The last portion of this article reads as follows:
"Since the day when National Socialism unrolled its flag and the march began for the Germany for Germans, our battle also included the Jewry * * * Let the Jew continue with his methods against New Germany. We know that at the end we will remain the victor for
Snake remains a snake, and
Jew remains a Jew! * * *
* * * "German women, if you buy from Jews and German girl, if you carry on with Jews, then both of you betray your German Volk and your Fuehrer, Adolf Hitler, and commit a sin against your German Volk and its future! Then, also, outside of the last German village, the sign will stand 'Jews are not wanted here!' and then, finally, no German citizen will again cross the threshold of a Jewish store. To achieve this goal is the mission of the SA man as political soldier of the Fuehrer. Next to his word and his explanations stands his example".
Article entitled: "God Save the Jew," 17 August, 1935, p.1. Photograph showing SA men gathered around trucks upon which are posted signs reading: "Read The Stuermer and you will know the Jew." 24 August, 1935, p.3.
Photograph apparently representing public SA rally showing large sign which reads: "He who knows a Jew knows a devil," 24 August, 1935, p.3.
Article entitled: "The Face of the Jew" (with portrait of a Jew holding the hammer and sickle), 5 Oct., 1935, p.6.
Article entitled: "Jews, Blacks and Reactionaries," 2 November, 1935, p.2.
Article entitled: "The Camouflaged Benjamin-Jewish Cultural Bolshevism in German music," 23 November, 1935, p.2.
Article entitled: "The Jewish Assassination," 15 February, 1936, p.1.
Article entitled: "Murder-The Jewish Slogan," 4 April, 1936, p.11.
Series of articles entitled: "The Jewish Mirror." Eight weekly installments beginning 22 May 1936, p.17.
Series of articles entitled: "Gravediggers of World Culture," beginning 5 December, 1936, p. 6 and continuing weekly to 13 March 1937.
Article entitled: "Rumania to the Jews?" 2 January, 1937, p.6.
Article entitled: "Bismarck's Position on Jews," 2 January, 1937, p.7.
Article entitled: "Jewry is a Birth Error," 13 February 1937, p.5.
Article entitled: "The Protection of the German Blood," 24 April, 1937, p.1.
Article entitled: "Crooked Ways to Money and Power," 24 April, 1937, p.1.
Article entitled: "The Camouflage of Jewry-Beginning or End?" 22 May, 1937, p.14.
Article entitled: "How come still German Jews?" 18 June, 1938, p.2.
Article entitled: "Westheimer Jew Servants," 22 January, 1938, p.2.
Article entitled: "The Poor Jew-Well, Well! !" 19 March, 1938, p.15.
Article entitled: "Jewish Methods, Churchly Parallel," 9 September, 1938, p.4.
Article entitled: "Jews and Free Masons," 13 January, 1939, p.15.
Article entitled: "Friends of the World Jewry-Roosevelt and Ickes," 3 February, 1939, p.14.
The circulation of these articles was not intended to be confined to members of the SA. On the contrary, the Plan was to educate the members of the SA with this philosophy, and for the SA in turn to disseminate it into the minds of the German people. This fact is demonstrated in The introduction to a series of anti-Jewish articles entitled "Gravediggers of World Culture," which began in the issue of 5 December, 1936, at page 6. This introduction stated in part as follows:
"We suggest that the comrades especially take notice of this series of articles and see that they are further circulated." (3050-A-E-PS)
In addition, intensive campaigns were conducted to persuade the public to purchase and read "Der SA-Mann," and various issues were posted in public places so that the general public might read them. "Der SA-Mann" itself contained several photographs showing particular issues posted upon street bulletin boards. There are also several photographs showing advertising displays, one of which reads as follows "Der SA-Mann belongs in every house, every hotel, every inn, every waiting room, and every store" (page 3 of the issue of 31 October, 1936). (3050-A-E-PS)
In view of such widespread publicity for the objectives and methods of the SA, it is inconceivable that volunteers for membership did not know of the criminal character of this organization.
(4) Fostering of Militarism. In the final phase of the SA in the conspiracy-its participation in the preparation for aggressive warfare-the Sa was again employed to inculcate a particular Nazi ideology into the minds of the German people. It was the function of the SA to prepare Germany mentally for the waging of an aggressive war.
At all times, and especially during the period from 1933-39, SA leaders emphasized to SA members the duty and responsibility of creating and fostering a militaristic spirit throughout Germany. In 1933, Hitler established the so-called SA sports program and at that time, according to Sturmfuehrer Bayer in his pamphlet "The SA,"
"the SA was "commissioned to obtain an increase of and preservation of a warlike power and a warlike spirit as the expression of an aggressive attitude". (2168-PS)
In 1937, Hitler renewed the so-called sports program and then declared the program to be a means "for the fostering of a military spirit" among the German people. (3050-A-E-PS)
The Organization Book of the Party is to the same effect.
The function of the SA is characterized as follows:
"While the political organization of the NSDAP has carried out the political leadership, the SA is the training and education instrument of the Party for the realization of the world-philosophical soldier-like attitude.
"Consequently, the young German in the SA is being inculcated in the first instance from the standpoint of world philosophy and character, and trained as the bearer of National Socialist armed will." (3220-PS)
The contents of a number of articles designed to serve as war propaganda material may be gained from their titles, which are very graphic. A number of articles relate to the Nazi Lebensraum philosophy:
Article entitled: "The German Living Space," 5 January, 1935, p.13.
Article entitled: "Folk and Space-A Geopolitical View," 27 April, 1935, p.13.
Article entitled: "The Enlargement of our Living Space," 25 April, 1936, p.10.
Article entitled: "Our Right, Our Colonies," 10 October, 1936, p.15.
Article entitled: "Our Right for Colonies," 18 December, 1937, p.7.
Article entitled: "Space and Folk," 14 October, 1938, p.3.
Article entitled: "Colonies for Germany," 2 January, 1937, p.4. This article reads in part as follows:
"The German Ambassador in London, Herr von Ribbentrop, recently, on occasion of a reception in the Anglo-German Fellowship * * * has renewed, in a speech which aroused great interest, the unretractable claim of Germany for the restitution of its colonies which had been snatched away.
"Shortly thereafter the Reichsbank president and Reich Minister of Economics, Dr. Schacht, published in the English magazine, 'Foreign Affairs,' a detailed article on the German colonial problem. * * *
"For the rest Dr. Schacht laid out the categorical demand that Germany must, in order to solve its raw materials problem, get colonies, which must be administered by Germany, and in which the German standard currency must be in circulation."
The next group consists of articles condemning the Versailles Treaty:
Article entitled: "What is the Situation regarding our battle for Equal Rights?" 7 April 1934, p.4.
Article entitled: "The Dictate of Versailles," 30 June, 1934, p.15. This article reads in part as follows:
"* * * The dictate of Versailles established the political, economical and financial destruction of Germany in 440 artfully-one could also say-devilishly devised paragraphs; this work of ignominy is a sample of endless and partly contradictory repetitions in constantly new forms. Not too many have occupied themselves with this thick book to a great extent, for one could only do it with abomination * * *"
Article entitled: "The Unbearable Limitations of our Fleet," 7 July, 1934, p.15.
Article entitled: "Versailles after 15 years," 19 January, 1935, p.13. This article reads in part as follows:
"This terrible word 'Versailles,' since a blind nation ratified it, has become a word of profanity for all those who are infatuated in the spirit of this enormous production of hatred. The Versailles dictate is German fate in the fullest sense of the word. Every German stood up under the operation of this fate during the past 15 years. Therefore, every last German must also grasp the contents of this dictate so that one single desire of its absolute destruction fills the whole German Volk."
Article entitled: "How about Germany's fight for Equal Rights?" 16 March, 1935, p.1.
Article entitled: "Through Adolf Hitler's Acts: Free from Versailles," 30 January, 1937, pp. 12-13.
Article entitled: "Versailles will be Liquidated," 13 February, 1937. This article reads in part as follows, p. 4:
"The National Socialist Movement has again achieved a victory, for upon its flag since the beginning of the fight stands: The liquidation of the Versailles Treaty. For this fight the SA marched year after Year * * *."
A third group consists of articles describing preparations for war allegedly being carried on by other nations:
Article entitled: "Military Training of the English Youth" (showing pictures of Eton students wearing traditional Eton dress-tall hats and frock coats-marching with rifles), 26 January, 1935, p.14.
Article entitled: "The Army of the Soviet Union" (with pictures of self-propelled artillery and tanks. One picture bears the quotation "The Artillery of the Red Army is already extensively motorized"), 16 March, 1935, p.14.
Photograph of Russian Artillery bearing the notation "Soviet Russian Heavy artillery on maneuver," 16 March, 1935, p.1.
Article entitled: "Armies of Tomorrow" (Discussion of anticipated developments in motorized and mechanized warfare. One section of the article is devoted to "Plans of foreign countries with respect to motorized armies"), 30 March, 1935, p.14.
Article entitled: "The Red Danger in the East," 4 April, 1936, p.13.
Article entitled: "The Red Army Today," 4 April, 1936, p.13.
Article entitled: "Russia prepares for World War," 29 August, 1936, p.10.
Article entitled: "Red Terrorism Nailed Down," 19 June, 1937, p.7.
Cartoon bearing title "Stalin Wants World revolution," 26 February, 1938, p.13.
These lists of articles are not exhaustive. These articles are merely typical of many in similar vein which appear throughout the issues of "Der SA-Mann."
(5) The Training of German Youth for Aggressive Warfare. The important responsibility of training the youth of Germany in the technique of war, and of preparing them physically and spiritually for the waging of aggressive warfare, was delegated to the SA. Hitler characterized this task of the SA in these words:
"Give the German Nation six million perfectly trained bodies in sport, all fanatically inspired with the love for the Fatherland and trained to the highest offensive spirit and a National Socialist State will, if necessary, have created an Army out of them in less than two years." (3215-PS)
The military character of the SA is demonstrated by its organizational structure (2168-PS). As appears from the SA organizational chart, (Chart Number 8) it was organized into units closely corresponding to those of the German army. The organizational scheme consisted of divisions, regiments, battalions, companies, platoons, and squads. In addition, there were special units and branches, including cavalry, signal corps, engineer corps, and medical corps. There were also three officer training schools (2168-PS). SA members wore distinctive uniforms adapted to military functions, bore arms, and engaged in training, forced marches, and other military exercises. These facts are disclosed in photographs and articles in "Der SA-Mann".
SA members, moreover, were governed by general regulations which closely resemble service regulations of an armed force (2820-PS). According to these regulations, "Discipline and obedience are the foundations as strong as steel for each military unit." These regulations further provide for punishment for disobedience. The punishments provided demonstrate the militaristic character of the SA. They include the following:
Reprimand in private;
Reprimand in presence of superiors and announcement thereof at formations;
Prohibition of right to wear the service uniform;
Arrest and confinement in jail;
Demotion in rank;
Prohibition of right to carry weapon. (2820-PS)
Preparation for war through the SA training program was commenced in Germany as early as 1933, but the scope of this program was not made public because it constituted a violation of the Treaty of Versailles. The strict secrecy with which the program was surrounded is shown by an order from the Chief of Staff of the SA dated 25 July, 1933 (D-44):
"Further to my instruction Z II 1351/33 dated 11 July 33, I find cause to ask all SA authorities to exercise the greatest caution with regard to any publicity given to the SA service not only in the press, but also in the information and news sheets of the individual SA units.
"Only during the last few days, the Reich Ministry of the Interior, at the request of the Foreign Office, has given strict instructions to all Reich authorities according to which the most severe control is to be exercised on all publications which might give other countries an opening to construe German infringements of the terms of the Versailles Treaty. "As is known from the Geneva negotiations, our opponents have piled up material collected in Germany and submitted to them, which they use against us on every occasion during the conferences.
"From this point of view, the information sheets circulating among the subordinate SA units cause the liveliest concern. I hold all higher SA leaders responsible that any such internal information sheets appearing in the district of their command are submitted to the most stringent control before they go into print, and I feel compelled to draw attention to the threat of a prosecution for treason, pronounced by official instructions issued in the last few days, in cases where such reports, printed no doubt in good faith, are publicized and therefore exposed to the danger of falling into the wrong hands.
"On principle, pictures of the technical specialized units of the SA and SS, in particular of the signals, motorized and possibly also of the air wings which now exist outside these formations, are forbidden, such pictures enabling other countries to prove the alleged formation of technical troop units." (D-44)
Secrecy was also required in the order assigning a Wehrmacht officer to the SA in January, 1934, to assist in the SA Training program (2823-PS). A memorandum from SA Headquarters dated 20 January, 1934 designates an officer of the Wehrmacht to assist in the military training of SA members and goes on to provide:
"For the purpose of disguise, Lt. Col. Auleb will wear SA uniform with insignia of rank according to more detailed regulations of the Supreme Sa leaders". (2823-PS)
The military training program of the SA was for many years conducted under the guise of a sports program. This plan was created by Hitler as early as 1920 in founding what he called the National Socialist Sport Troop (SA). Hitler's declaration at the time of the creation of this sports organization was as follows:
"The Sport Troop * * * is but the bearer of the military thought of a free people." (3215-PS)
The fact that the so-called Sports program was in reality closely associated with and in fact a means of providing military training for German youth, is shown by the following characterization of the program by Lutze, the Chief of Staff of the Sa, in an article written in 1939 (3215-PS):
"* * * This goal setting also served for the decrees of the Fuehrer to the Sa of 1935 regarding the renewing of, in 1936 regarding the evaluation of, in 1937 regarding the yearly repetitive exercises of the SA sport badge. Parallel to this decree of the Fuehrer for the physical betterment and military training the organizational and development missions within the SA were met. Out of the conception that the preservation and intensification of the military power of our people must especially be requested by military and physical exercises, the training was especially carried out systematically in these fields. In 25 schools of the troop and in 3 Reichsfuehrer schools of the SA yearly 22,000 to 25,000 officers and non-coms were trained since 1934 in special educational courses until they possessed the education and examination certificates. In clearly outlined training directives the training goals which had to be achieved yearly were given and at the same time the yearly Reich competitive contests were established. Hand in hand The training of the Fuehrer Corps and corresponding organizational measures and the training at the front proceeded on the broadest basis." (3215-PS)
The military nature of the Sports Program is likewise demonstrated by the tests and standards required to obtain the sports award. The Organization Book of the Party lists these tests as follows (2354-PS):
"The performance test includes three groups of exercises:
Topographical (naval) services.
"Group I: Body Exercises;
Throwing of hand grenades,
"Group II: Military sports;
25-Kilometer march with pack,
Firing of small-caliber arms,
Aimed throwing of hand grenades,
200-meter cross-country race with gas masks over 4 obstacles,
Swimming or bicycle riding,
Basic knowledge of first aid in case of accidents.
"Group III: Terrain service;
Estimate of terrain,
Estimate of distance,
Observing and reporting,
Utilization of terrain and general behavior in terrain service." (2354-PS)
In 1939, the SA Sports Program was formally recognized, in a decree issued by Hitler, as a military training program. At the same time the SA was openly declared to be an agency for pre and post-military training, that is, military training prior to and following military service in the Wehrmacht (2383-PS).
The decree provided in part as follows:
"Der Fuehrer. In amplification of my decree of the 15th February, 1935, and 18th March, 1937, regarding the acquisition of the SA sport insignia and the yearly repetitive exercises, I lift the SA sport insignia to the SA military insignia and make it as a basis for pre-imposed military training.
"I designate the SA as standard bearer of this training.
"These soldiers who honourably were discharged out of the active military service and who were serviceable soldiers are to be placed into the Army ranks for the retaining of their spiritual and physical energy and to be attached to the SA insofar as no other organization of the Party (the SS, NSKK, and SFK) have received them for special training." (2383-PS)
The SA military training program was not confined to its members, but extended to the entire youth of Germany. Thus the Chief of Staff of the SA, in re-establishing the sports program in 1935, declared (2354-PS):
"In order to give conscious expression to the fostering of a valiant spirit in all parts of the German people, I further decide that this SA Sport Insignia can also be earned and worn by persons who are not members of the movement, inasfar as they comply racially and ideologically with the National Socialist requirements". (2354-PS)
The pamphlet entitled "The SA", shows that responsibility for conducting this nation-wide program was lodged in the operational main office of the SA (2168-PS). According to the pamphlet it was the duty of this office to-
"Prepare the fighting training of the bodies of all Germans capable of bearing arms (Wehrfahig) and as preparation therefor must organize the execution of corporal exercises (basic physical training) and sports achievements, so that the widest stratum of the population is laid hold upon and will be kept in condition to bear arms (Wehrtuchtig) both physically and spiritually, as well as ideologically in character up to greatest old age." (2168-PS)
The extent to which the SA carried the military training program into the lives of the German people may be seen from the following excerpt from "Das Archiv" (3215-PS):
"Next to the companies of the SA were the sport badge associations (SAG) in which all the militaristic nationals entered who were prepared to voluntarily answer the call of the SA for the preservation of military proficiency. Up until now around 800,000 nationals outside of the SA could successfully undergo the physical betterment as well as the political military training of the SA on the basis of the SA sport badge.
"As pronounced proof heretofore it may be shown that alone 13,400 officers and around 30,000 non-coms in the Reserve Corps of the Wehrmacht from its (SA) own ranks stand at the disposal of the SA and can be employed at any time for the direction of SA military forces * * *". (3215-PS)
In 1939, the extension of the SA military program to non-SA members was officially recognized by Hitler. This occurred in the ordinance for the execution of the Hitler decree of 16 January, 1942:
"Every German man who has completed his seventeenth year and who shows preliminary requirements for honorary service with the weapon, has the customary duty to win the SA military insignia in preparation for military service.
"During the years in the Hitler Youth following his sixteenth year, he is to prepare himself for the winning of the SA military insignia." (2383-PS)
The SA, in its military training program, was no mere marching and drilling society. It embraced every phase of the technique of modern warfare. This appears clearly from the articles on military training which appear throughout the issues of "Der SA-Mann". The titles of these articles indicate their substance. The following are a few examples:
Article entitled: "Defense Platoon and the Company in Battle" (with diagrams), 27 January, 1934, p.10..
Article entitled: "Die Luftwaffe" (with diagrams on Aircraft Gunnery), 3 February 1934, p.7.
Article entitled: "Pistol Shooting," 17 February, 1934, p.7.
Article entitled: "Orientation in Terrain," 10 March, 1934, p.7.
Article entitled: "First Aid-ABC," 17 March, 1934, p.7.
Article entitled: "We go into the Terrain" (relating to map study and map symbols), 24 March, 1934, p.7.
Article entitled: "What every SA Man must know about Aviation," 21 April, 1934, p.13.
Article entitled: "Expert firing in German National Sport" (relating to small caliber firing), 12 May, 1934, p.7.
Article entitled: "Chemical Warfare," 19 May, 1934, p. 13.
Article entitled: "What every SA Man should know about Aviation," 19 May, 1934, p. 12.
Article entitled: "Flame Throwers on the Front," 26 May, 1934, p.14.
Article entitled: "Modern Battle Methods in the View of the SA Man," 2 June, 1934, p.14.
Article entitled: "The Significance of Tanks and Motors in Modern War," 4 August, 1934, p.13.
Article entitled: "The Rifle 98," 8 September, 1934, p.7.
Article entitled: "The Combat Battalion" (with description of tactical missions and maneuvers of the battalion), 15 September, 1934, p.7.
Article entitled: "Air Strategy and Air Tactics," 29 September, 1934, p.7.
Article entitled: "Gas Protection and the Gas Mask," 6 October, 1934, p.7.
Article entitled: "The Pistol 08" (with diagram of the pistol, its nomenclature and field stripping), 6 October, 1934, p.7.
Article entitled: "Training the SA in Map and Terrain Study," 24 November, 1934, p.4.
Article entitled: "The Defense," with subheading "What does the War of Tomorrow look like?" 1 December, 1934, p.13.
Series of articles by a Wehrmacht officer entitled: "Training in the Army of the Third Reich," beginning on 12 January, 1935, p.13.
Series of articles entitled: "Construction and Composition of various units of the Modern Army," written by a Brigadier General in the Wehrmacht-beginning 26 January, 1935, p.15, and ending 20 April, 1935, p.16.
Article entitled: "Small caliber firing" (with sketches of ammunition, rifles, targets, and aiming technique), 26 January, 1935, p.19.
Article entitled: "Armies of Tomorrow" (discussion of anticipated developments in motorized and mechanized warfare. One section of the article is devoted to "Plans of foreign countries with respect to motorized armies"), 30 March, 1935, p.14.
The issues of "Der SA-Mann" also contain many photographs and articles demonstrating SA participation in military exercise, including forced marching, battle maneuvers, obstacle runs, small calibre firing, and the like. Among these photographs and articles are the following:
Each issue of "Der SA-Mann" contains advertisements for the sale of various items of military equipment, including uniforms, steel helmets, rifles, boots, grenades, field glasses, ammunition, etc. (See, for example, 20 January, 1934, p.16; and 9 March, 1935, p.16.)
Picture of SA men marching in military formation executing "goose step," 14 April, 1934, p.8.
Group of pictures showing SA Troops marching in military formations and in full pack and bearing flags being reviewed by Hitler. Title of page is "SA Marches into the New Year," 12 January, 1935, p.3.
Photographs of uniformed SA Troops marching in streets of Saarbrucken with caption: "In the streets of free Saarbrucken thuds the marching steps of the SA," 9 march, 1935, p.3.
Group of photographs entitled: "SA brigade 6 Marches for the German Danzig," 4 May, 1935, p.3.
Article entitled: "Who fights against us we will defeat, who provokes us we shall attack" (with picture of SA men in military formation bearing caption: "We are a political ideological troop"), 13 July, 1935, p.1.
Article entitled: "The SA is and remains the Shock Troop of the Third Reich" (with picture of Gruppenfuehrer reviewing SA men marching in uniform and in full pack, in military formation), 24 August, 1935, p.2.
Article entitled: "SA Men at the heavy machine gun," 3 July, 1936, p.14.
Photograph of SA men in uniform and full pack on obstacle run, 29 August, 1936, p.7.
Article entitled: "Fight, Fight, Fight" with subtitles: "Preparation of Francken Division for the NS War Games" (with picture of SA men bearing arms), 26 June, 1937, p.4.
Photograph of SA men bearing weapons, bearing caption: "Austria's SA: through battle, distress and persecution, to victory."
Photograph bearing caption: "German-Austrian SA was armed in the hour of decision," 2 April, 1938, p.1.
Photograph of SA men bearing arms on battle maneuvers, 19 August, 1938, p.8., bearing the caption: "The way to victory."
Article entitled: "SA and the Wehrmacht" (with pictures of SA men on field maneuvers throwing hand grenades), 2 September, 1938, p.1.
Photograph of SA men on field maneuvers, 9 September, 1938, p.18.
Photograph of SA men bearing arms in trenches, apparently on field maneuvers, 16 September, 1938, p.1. (Frankens-SA).
Photographs of SA men marching under arms, and on the rifle range, 30 September, 1938, p.4. (Frankens-SA).
Photograph of SA Regiment Feldherrnhalle marching in goose-step with rifles and steel helmets and with the Luftwaffe insignia of sovereignty on their uniform and helmets, 11 November, 1938, p.4.
Photograph entitled "Regiment Feldherrnhalle was there", (referring to the incorporation of the Sudetenland), 14 October, 1938, p.6.
Photograph bearing the caption: "Training with the KK Rifle. Something entirely new for the Sudeten German. Every SA man must be outstanding in marksmanship," 6 January, 1939, p.3.
Article entitled: "The SA-the forger of military power," with the subheading: "The SA as bearer of the Premilitary Training," 27 January, 1939, p.1.
Photograph of Von Brauchitsch (Wehrmacht) and Lutze reviewing the SA, 3 February, 1939, p.3.
Photograph of SA on march with full pack and rifles. (Frankens-SA), 3 February, 1939, p.1.
C. Cooperation with the Wehrmacht in Preparation for Aggression.
Evidence of the SA's participation in the conspiracy is found in the care which was taken at all times to coordinate the military training program of the SA with the requirements of the Wehrmacht. As early as 1934, an SA memorandum provided that the Sa chief of training and his subordinates should remain-
"* * * in direct touch with the respective offices and sections of the Reich defense Ministry." (2823-PS)
The same memorandum recites that a Lieutenant-Colonel of the Wehrmacht was assigned to the SA with the duty of participating-
"* * * in all questions regarding training and organization * * *." (2823-PS)
Another SA memorandum declared that:
"* * * permanent liaison between the Reich Defense Ministry and the Supreme Commander of the SA * * * has been assured." (2821-PS)
Hitler's words regarding cooperation between Wehrmacht and SA were as follows:
"The requirements of the Wehrmacht are to be taken into consideration in organization and training.
"The Chief of Staff of the SA releases the required executionary directives in agreement with the Commander in Chief of the Wehrmacht units. He alone is responsible for the fulfillment." (2383-PS)
A speech by the Chief of Staff of the SA relating to the technical and specialized branches of the SA revealed that this opportunity for collaboration with the Wehrmacht in specialized military training was utilized to the utmost:
"In the course of this development also special missions for military betterment (program) were placed on the SA. The Fuehrer gave the SA the cavalry and motor training and called SA Obergruppenfuehrer Littmann as Reich Inspector with the mission to secure the * * * recruits and requirements for the German Wehrmacht through the SA. In close cooperation with parts of the Wehrmacht special certificates were created for the communication, engineer and medical units which, like the cavalry certificate of the SA, are valued as statement of preference for employment in said units." (3215-PS)
The specialized training given SA members, in accordance with the requirements of technical branches of the Wehrmacht, is described by SA Sturmfuehrer Bayer as follows (2168-PS):
"* * * On one side the young SA man who enters the armed forces (Wehrmacht) from his branch, comes prepared with a multitude of prerequisites which facilitate and speed up training in technical respects; while on the other side those very soldiers, having served, who return out of the armed forces into the SA keep themselves, by constant practice, in a trained condition physically and mentally and impart their knowledge to their fellows.
"Thus they contribute a considerable portion to the enhancement of armed strength (Wehrkraft) and armed spirit (Wehrgeist) of the German people." (2168-PS)
And, with respect to the mounted or cavalry SA-
" * * * the SA each year is able to furnish many thousands of young trained cavalrymen to our Wehrmacht * * * At present the SA cavalry has at its disposal 101 cavalry units in whose schools, year in and year out, young Germans who are obligated for military service receive the training which fits him for entrance into a section of troops which is of their own choosing." (2168-PS)
The close relationship between the SA and the Wehrmacht is shown throughout the issues of "Der SA-Mann", which contain a number of articles on military training written by Wehrmacht officers. The same relationship is shown in many photographs. For example, in the issue of 1 May, 1937, at page 4, there is a picture of a Wehrmacht formation drawn up in front of an SA building with SA officers and men in the Background. The picture is entitled-
"Day after day the closed formations of the Wehrmacht march in Wurzburg to the subscription places of the SA for Thanksgiving to the nation in order to announce its close relation with the SA, and to express thanks to the Fuehrer for making the Reich capable of defense."
Page 2 of the issue of 27 January, 1939, contains a photograph of the SA Chief of Staff, Lutze, addressing a group of SA men. The photograph bears the caption, "We will be the bridge between the Party and the Wehrmacht." Page 3 of the issue of 3 February, 1939, reproduces a photograph of General von Brauchitsch and Chief of Staff Lutze reviewing an SA unit.
The close cooperation between the Wehrmacht and the SA, and the significance of the SA military training program is shown by the fact that service in the SA was considered as military service under the Conscription Law of 1935. The Organization Book of the Party declared that-
"Equally significant is a suitable education and training which the SA has accomplished within the yearly classes, and which have satisfied their arms obligation." (3220-PS)
And an article in "Das Archiv" declared-
"It was announced that conscripted SA men and Hitler Youths can fulfill their military conscription in the SA Regiment Feldherrnhalle whose Commander is General Field Marshall SA Obergruppenfuehrer Goering. The Regiment for the first time was employed as Regiment of the Luftwaffe in the occupation of the Sudetenland under its Fuehrer and Regimental Commander SA Gruppenfuehrer Reimann." (3214-PS)
There was never any misunderstanding among SA men as to the reasons which lay behind their military training program. They were preparing for war and knew it. The purpose of the socalled "Sports Program" was announced time after time in articles in "Der SA-Mann." For example, the introduction to an article entitled, "The War of Tomorrow," which appeared in the issue of 6 July, 1937, at page 12, declared:
"By decree of the Fuehrer of 18th March, 1937, the SA Sport Badge was declared as a means for the aggressive training of the body, for the fostering of a military spirit, for the retaining of military efficiency and thereby as a basis for German military power. * * *
"* * * In the following article an attempt is made to occupy every SA fuehrer, who does not have the opportunity due to their profession or many-sided SA services, with questions concerning military policy and modern war direction, to give him an overall view of facts, teachings, opinions and beliefs which today are not without decisive influence upon the military policy, upon the character of the coming war and upon the modern national defense."
D. Participation of the SA in Warfare.
It would be natural in view of the above quotation, to expect the SA to have been used as a striking force in the first steps of the aggressive warfare launched by Germany, and as a basis for so-called Commando Groups. Such was the case. SA units were among the first of the Nazi military machine to invade Austria in the spring of 1938. This fact was proudly announced in an article appearing in "Der SA-Mann" for 19 March, 1938, at p.10, entitled, "We were the First!" Similarly, the SA participated in the occupation of the Sudetenland (3214-PS). It was announced that conscripted SA men and Hitler Youths could fulfill their military conscription duty in the SA Regiment Feldherrnhalle, commanded by General Field Marshall SA Obergruppenfuehrer Goering. The regiment was employed for the first time as Regiment of the Luftwaffe in the occupation of the Sudetenland, under its Fuehrer and Regimental commander SA Gruppenfuehrer Reimann.
SA participation in the occupation of the Sudetenland is also shown by an affidavit of Gottlob Berger, a former officer in the SS who was assigned to the Sudeten-German Free Corps (3036-PS). Berger declares-
"* * * 1. In the fall of 1938 I held the rank and title of Oberfuehrer in the SS. In mid-September I was assigned as SS Liaison Officer with Konrad Henlein's Sudeten German Free Corps at their headquarters in the castle at Dondorf outside Bayreuth. In this position I was responsible for all liaison between the Reichsfuehrer SS Himmler and Heinlein and, in particular, I was delegated to select from the Sudeten Germans those who appeared to be eligible for membership in the SS or VT (Verfuegungs Truppe). In addition to myself, liaison Officers stationed with Heinlein included an Obergruppenfuehrer from the NSKK, whose name I have forgotten, and Obergruppenfuehrer Max Juettner, from the SA. In addition, Admiral Canaris, who was head of the OKW Abwehr, appeared at Dondorf nearly every two days and conferred with Heinlein. "2. In the course of my official duties at Henlein's Headquarters I became familiar with the composition and activities of the Free Corps. Three groups were being formed under Henlein's direction: One in the Eisenstein area, Bavaria, one in the Bayreuth area; one in the Dresden area, and possibly a fourth group in Silesia. These groups were supposedly composed of refugees from the Sudetenland who had crossed the border into Germany, but they actually contained Germans with previous service in the SA and NSKK [Nazi Motor Corps] as well. These Germans formed the skeleton of the Free Corps. On paper the Free Corps had a strength of 40,000 men. Part of the equipment furnished to Heinlein, mostly haversacks, cooking utensils and blankets, were supplied by the SA." (3036-PS)
The adaptability of the SA to whatever purpose was required of it is demonstrated by its activities subsequent to the outbreak of the war. During the war the SA continued to carry out its military training program, but it also engaged in various other functions:
"The General of the SA, Wilhelm Schepmann, gave further orders to increase the employment of the SA in the homeland war territories because of the requirements of total war employment. This was done in numerous business conferences with Fuehrers of the SA-Divisions.
"As a result of these conferences, as well as of measures already carried out earlier for the totalization of the war employment, the SA now has placed 86 per cent of its main professional Fuehrer Corps at disposal at the Front even though the war missions of the SA have increased in the fields of pre-military training, the SA penetration into new territorial parts of the Reich, the air war employment, the State and national guard etc., during war time.
"The SA as a whole has given at present an even 70% of its nearly million members to the Wehrmacht." (3219-PS)
The SA even extended its activities into Poland:
"By command of the General of the SA, the 'SA-Unit General Government' was established, the command of which was taken over by Governor-General SA Obergruppenfuehrer Dr. Frank." (3216-PS)
An affidavit of Walter Schellenberg, bureau chief in the RSHA, reads as follows:
"* * * From the beginning of 1944 on the SA also participated in many of the functions which had previously been entrusted only to the SS, SIPO and Army, for instance the guarding of concentration camps, the guarding of prisoner of war camps, the supervision over forced laborers in Germany and occupied areas. This cooperation of the SA was planned and arranged for by high officials in Berlin as early as the middle of 1943 * * *." (3232-PS)
E. Special Responsibility of Goering for the SA Program.
Hermann Goering participated in the conspiracy in his capacity as an SA member and leader. In 1923, Goering became Commander of the entire SA. A few months later Goering participated in the so-called Munich Putsch. SA troops participated with him in this action.
Goering's intention to employ the SA as a terroristic force to destroy political opponents is shown by a speech made by him on 3 March, 1933, at a Nazi demonstration in Frankfurt Am Main (1856-PS). Goering spoke as follows:
"Certainly, I shall use the power of the State and the police to the utmost, my dear Communists! So you won't draw any false conclusions by the struggle to the death in which my fist will grasp your necks, I shall lead with those down there. Those are the Brown Shirts." (1856-PS)
The importance of the SA under Goering in the early stages of the Nazi movement is shown by a letter written to Goering by Hitler (3259-PS):
"My dear Goering:
"When in November 1923 the Party tried for the first time to conquer the power of the State, you as Commander of the SA created within an extraordinarily short time that instrument with which I could bear that struggle. highest necessity had forced us to act, but a wise Providence at that time denied the success. After receiving a grave wound you again entered the ranks as soon as circumstances permitted as my most loyal comrade in the battle for power. You contributed essentially to creating the basis for the 30th of January. Therefore, at the end of a year of the National Socialist Revolution, I desire to thank you wholeheartedly, my dear Party Comrade Goering, for the Great values which you have for the National Socialist Revolution and consequently for the German people.
"In cordial friendship and grateful appreciation.
"(s) Adolf Hitler!" (3259-PS)
Although Goering did not retain command of the SA, he at all times maintained a close affiliation with the organization. This is shown by the photographs of Goering participating in SA activities which have been mentioned previously. In 1937, Goering became Commander of the Feldherrnhalle Regiment of the SA This was the Regiment which was employed in the occupation of the Sudetenland. (3214-PS)
LEGAL REFERENCES AND LIST OF DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE STURMABTEILUNG (SA)
Document Description VOl. Page
Charter of the International Military Tribunal, Article 9… I 6
International Military Tribunal, Indictment Number 1, section IV (H); Appendix B… I 29,72
Note: A single asterisk (*) before a document indicates that the document was received in evidence at the Nurnberg trial. A double asterisk (**) before a document number indicates that the document was referred to during the trial but was not formally received in evidence, for the reason given in parentheses following the description of the document. The USA series number, given in parentheses following the description of the document, is the official exhibit number assigned by the court.
*392-PS Official NSDAP circular entitled "The Social Life of New Germany with Special Consideration of the German Labor Front", by Prof. Willy Mueller (Berlin, 1938). (USA 326)… III 380
*787-PS Memorandum to Hitler from Public Prosecutor of Dresden, 18 June 1935, concerning criminal procedure against Vogel on account of bodily injury while in office. (USA 421)… III 568
*1395-PS Law to insure the unity of Party and State, 1 December 1933. 1933 Reichsgesetzblatt, Part I, p.1016. (GB 252)… III 978
*1721-PS Confidential report of SA Brigadefuehrer, November 1938, concerning destruction of Jewish property. (USA 524)… IV 214
1725-PS Decree enforcing law for securing the unity of Party and State, 29 March 1935. 1935 Reichsgesetzblatt, Part I, p.502… IV 224
*1759-PS Affidavit of Raymond H. Geist. (USA 420)… IV 288
*1856-PS Extract from book entitled "Hermann Goering - Speeches and Essays", 3rd edition 1939, p.27. (USA 437)… IV 496
*1893-PS Extracts from Organization Book of the NSDAP, 1943 edition. (USA 323)… IV 529
*2168-PS Book by SA Sturmfuehrer Dr. Ernst Bayer, entitled "The SA", depicting the history, work, aim and organization of the SA. (USA 411)… IV 772
2260-PS Settlement of Relationship between NSDAP and Stahlhelm (Steel Helmets) published in National Socialist Party Press Service release, 21 June 1933… IV 933
*2354-PS Extracts from Organization book of NSDAP, 5th, 6th and 7th editions, concerning SA. (USA 430) (See Chart No. 17)… IV 1091
*2383-PS Ordinance for execution of decree of Fuehrer concerning position of the Head of Party Chancellery of 16 January 1942, Published in Decrees, Regulations, Announcements. (USA 410)… V 9
*2407-PS Order concerning the Roehm purge and appointment of Lutze as Chief of Staff, published in Voelkischer Beobachter, 1934. (USA 412)… V 82
*2471-PS Pamphlet No. 12 in a series entitled "here Speaks the New German". Speech made in January 1936 by Victor Lutze, Chief of Staff of SA, subject: "The affairs and Tasks of SA". (USA 413)… V 211
2532-PS Extract from The Third Reich, by Gerd Ruehle… V 268
*2660-PS Distribution Plan for Gaue, Kreise, and Ortsgruppen, from The Bearers of Sovereignty, 2nd Issue, 3rd Year, February 1939. (USA 325)… V 365
*2760-PS Extract from Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler, 1933 edition. (USA 256)… V 396
*2820-PS General Service Regulations for the SA of the NSDAP, published in Munich, 12 December 1933. (USA 427)… V 456
*2821-PS Memorandum from Supreme SA Headquarters, 19 March 1934, concerning organization of the SA and collaboration between Wehrmacht and SA. (USA 431)… V 458
2822-PS Letter from the Reich Military Ministry, 26 May 1933, suggesting that an SA branch and Reich Defense Council be united… V 459
*2823-PS Memorandum of SA Headquarters, January 1934, concerning assignment of Wehrmacht officer to Training Division of SA. (USA 429)… V 459
*2824-PS Extract from book entitled "Concentration Camp Oranienburg". (USA 423)… V 461
**3036-PS Affidavit of Gottlob Berger on the composition and activity of the Heinlein Free Corps in September 1938. (Objection to admission in evidence upheld.) (USA 102)… V 742
**3050-A-E-PS Excerpts from The SA Man. (USA 414; USA 415; USA 416; USA 417; USA 418) (Referred to but not offered in evidence.)… V 777
*3054-PS "The Nazi Plan", script of a motion picture composed of captured German film. (USA 167)… V 801
*3211-PS Goebbels to the SA, 17 October 1935, from The Archive, Vol. 19, October 1935, p.939. (USA 419)… V 928
3212-PS Excerpt from The Archive, Vol. 34, January, 1937, p.1452… V 929
3213-PS Excerpt from The Archive, Vol. 50, May 1938, pp.156-157… V 929
*3214-PS Excerpt from The Archive, Vol. 55, October 1938, p.1069. (USA 432)… V 930
*3215-PS Excerpt from The Archive, Vol. 60, March 1939, p.1834. (USA 426)… V 930
*3216-PS Excerpt from The Archive, Vol. 97, April 1942, P.54. (USA 434)… V 933
3217-PS Excerpt from The Archive, Vol. 97, April 1942 p.54… V 933
3218-PS Excerpt from The Archive, October 1933, pp.482-485… V 934
*3219-PS Excerpt from The Archive, Vol. 125, August 1944, p.367. (USA 433)… V 934
*3220-PS Excerpt form Organization Book of NSDAP, 1943 edition, p.358. (USA 323)… V 935
*3221-PS Affidavit of William F. Sollman, 26 October 1945. (USA 422)… V 936
*3232-PS Affidavit of Walter Schellenberg, 26 November 1945. (USA 435)… V 937
*3252-PS Extract from book Hermann Goering, The Man and his Work, by Eric Gritzbach, 1937. (USA 424)… V 957
*3259-PS Extract from book Hermann Goering, The Man and His Work, by Eric Gritzbach, p.69. (USA 424)… V 1007
*D-44 Circular, 25 July 1933, referring to publications of SA activities. (USA 428)… VI 1024
Affidavit F Affidavit of Josef Dietrich, 20-21 November 1945… VIII 631
L-198 State Department Dispatch by Consul General Messersmith, 14 March 1933, concerning molesting of American citizens in Berlin… VII 1026
L-199 Newspaper clippings from Berliner Tageblatt, 29 March 1933, regarding boycott action… VII 1034
Statement IX My Relationship to Adolf Hitler and to the Party, by Erich Raeder, Moscow, fall 1945… VIII 707
Statement XIII Outline of Defense of Dr. Robert Ley, written in Nurnberg Prison, 24 October 1945… VIII 749
**Chart No. 8 Organization of the SA. (Enlargement displayed to Tribunal.)… End of VIII
*Chart No. 17 Foreign Organization of the NSDAP. (2354-PS; USA 430)… End of VIII